Exemplar reasoning about biological models and diseases: A relation between the philosophy of medicine and philosophy of science
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):63-80 (1986)
the structure of medical science with a special focus on the role of generalizations and universals in medicine, and (2) philosophy of medicine's relation with the philosophy of science. I argue that a usually overlooked aspect of Kuhnian paradigms, namely, their characteristic of being "exemplars", is of considerable significance in the biomedical sciences. This significance rests on certain important differences from the physical sciences in the nature of theories in the basic and the clinical medical sciences. I describe those differences and maintain that they are these differentiating features that require the use of more comparative and analogical reasoning in medicine. I suggest that Kitcher's recent introduction of the notion of a ‘practice’ may have similar implications if it is construed to contain more analogical elements than he appears to recognize in his initial formulation. Finally I argue that though Gorovitz and MacIntyre's characterization of medicine as a "science of particulars" bears some similarities with my thesis, I maintain that such a position without careful qualification can lead to ignoring both the nature of generalizations in these sciences and their role as positive analogies tying together a family of overlapping models. Keywords: medical reasoning, biomedical theories/paradigms, science of particulars, philosophy of medicine CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Theory Structure, Reduction, and Disciplinary Integration in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):319-347.
Monika Piotrowska (2013). From Humanized Mice to Human Disease: Guiding Extrapolation From Model to Target. Biology and Philosophy 28 (3):439-455.
Margaret Nash (1989). Gr Nbaum and Psychoanalysis. Philosophical Psychology 2 (3):325 – 343.
Lara Huber & Lara K. Keuck (2013). Mutant Mice: Experimental Organisms as Materialised Models in Biomedicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):385-391.
Similar books and articles
David C. Thomasma (1990). Establishing the Moral Basis of Medicine: Edmund D. Pellegrino's Philosophy of Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (3):245-267.
Kathryn Montgomery (2006). How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine. Oxford University Press.
Kathryn Montgomery Hunter (1989). A Science of Individuals: Medicine and Casuistry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):193-212.
Mark H. Waymack (2009). Yearning for Certainty and the Critique of Medicine as “Science”. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):215-229.
Ineke Widdershoven-Heerding (1987). Medicine as a Form of Practical Understanding. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
Ronald Munson (1981). Why Medicine Cannot Be a Science. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):183-208.
Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine. University of Chicago Press.
Laurence Foss (1989). The Challenge to Biomedicine: A Foundations Perspective. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):165-191.
Barry Hoffmaster (1981). Family Medicine as a Social Science. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (4):387-410.
Arthur L. Caplan (1986). Exemplary Reasoning? A Comment on Theory Structure in Biomedicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):93-105.
Added to index2010-08-16
Total downloads24 ( #71,651 of 1,101,079 )
Recent downloads (6 months)6 ( #44,275 of 1,101,079 )
How can I increase my downloads?