David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Phenotypic Evolution explicitly recognizes organisms as complex genetic-epigenetic systems developing in response to changing internal and external environments. As a key to a better understanding of how phenotypes evolve, the authors have developed a framework that centers on the concept of the Developmental Reaction Norm. This encompasses their views: (1) that organisms are better considered as integrated units than as disconnected parts (allometry and phenotypic integration); (2) that an understanding of ontogeny is vital for evaluating evolution of adult forms (ontogenetic trajectories, epigenetics, and constraints); and (3) that environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous and must be acknowledged for its pervasive role in phenotypic expression.
|Keywords||phenotypic plasticity nature vs nurture phenotypic evolution|
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Peter D. Gluckman, Mark A. Hanson & Alan S. Beedle (2007). Non‐Genomic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Risk. Bioessays 29 (2):145-154.
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Emilie C. Snell‐Rood, James David Van Dyken, Tami Cruickshank, Michael J. Wade & Armin P. Moczek (2010). Toward a Population Genetic Framework of Developmental Evolution: The Costs, Limits, and Consequences of Phenotypic Plasticity. Bioessays 32 (1):71-81.
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