Pictures, Preparations, and Living Processes: The Production of Immediate Visual Perception (Anschauung) in Late-19th-Century Physiology [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):477 - 513 (2004)
This paper addresses the visual culture of late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking the case of Johann Nepomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and of specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled the perception of their students before allowing them to conduct experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.
|Keywords||Emil Du Bois-Reymond experiment Johann Nepomuk Czermak material culture observation physiology visual instruction|
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References found in this work BETA
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Michel Foucault (1994). The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Vintage Books.
Claude Bernard, Henry Copley Greene & Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1980). An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Classics of Medicine Library.
Lynn K. Nyhart & Elias José Palti (1997). Biology Takes Form: Animal Morphology and the German Universities 1800-1900. History of Science 35 (3):114-116.
Marta Braun (1995). Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey. University of Chicago Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Tim Seiber (forthcoming). Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture. Journal of Medical Humanities.
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