Pictures, Preparations, and Living Processes: The Production of Immediate Visual Perception (Anschauung) in Late-19th-Century Physiology [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):477 - 513 (2004)
This paper addresses the visual culture of late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking the case of Johann Nepomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and of specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled the perception of their students before allowing them to conduct experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.
|Keywords||Emil Du Bois-Reymond experiment Johann Nepomuk Czermak material culture observation physiology visual instruction|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Michel Foucault (1994). The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Vintage Books.
I. Kant (1984). Critique of Pure Reason. Philosophy 59 (230):555-557.
Claude Bernard, Henry Copley Greene & Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1980). An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Classics of Medicine Library.
Lynn K. Nyhart & Elias José Palti (1997). Biology Takes Form: Animal Morphology and the German Universities 1800-1900. History of Science 35 (3):114-116.
Marta Braun (1995). Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey. University of Chicago Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Tim Seiber (forthcoming). Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture. Journal of Medical Humanities.
Similar books and articles
M. Corbetta & G. L. Shulman (2002). Control of Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Attention in the Brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3 (3):201-215.
Fred W. Mast (2005). Mental Images: Always Present, Never There. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):769-770.
A. Cunningham (2002). The Pen and the Sword: Recovering the Disciplinary Identity of Physiology and Anatomy Before 1800 - I: Old Physiology-the Pen. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (4):631-665.
Torsten Wilholt (2008). When Realism Made a Difference: The Constitution of Matter and its Conceptual Enigmas in Late 19th Century Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (1):1-16.
Francesco Paolo De Ceglia (2006). Rotten Corpses, a Disembowelled Woman, a Flayed Man. Images of the Body From the End of the 17th to the Beginning of the 19th Century. Florentine Wax Models in the First-Hand Accounts of Visitors. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 14 (4):417-456.
Bruno G. Breitmeyer & Haluk Ögmen (2006). Visual Masking Reveals Differences Between the Nonconscious and Conscious Processing of Form and Surface Attributes. In Haluk Ögmen & Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.), The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. MIT Press 315-333.
Aurel Teodor Codoban (2011). From the “Camera Obscura” to the Computer, or How Does the Image Become an Apparent Indexical Sign. Journal for Communication and Culture 1 (1):4-19.
A. Polikarov (1995). Concerning the Integration of Sciences: Kinds and Stages. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 26 (2):297 - 312.
Morana Ala (2004). Negotiating Pictures of Numbers. Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):199 – 214.
Morana Alač (2004). Negotiating Pictures of Numbers. Social Epistemology 18 (2-3):199-214.
Albrecht Hirschmüller (1997). Dynamometrie. Zur Messung der Körperkraft des Menschen im 19. Jahrhundert. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 5 (1):104-118.
N. G. Albert (2005). From Myth to Pathology: Perversions of Gender-Types in Late 19th-Century Literature and Clinical Medicine. Diogenes 52 (4):114-126.
J. K. O'Regan (2011). Why Red Doesn't Sound Like a Bell: Understanding the Feel of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
Added to index2011-05-29
Total downloads4 ( #555,339 of 1,796,251 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #468,795 of 1,796,251 )
How can I increase my downloads?