Resolution and the origins of structural reasoning: Early proof-theoretic ideas of Hertz and Gentzen

Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (2):246-265 (2002)
Abstract
In the 1920s, Paul Hertz (1881-1940) developed certain calculi based on structural rules only and established normal form results for proofs. It is shown that he anticipated important techniques and results of general proof theory as well as of resolution theory, if the latter is regarded as a part of structural proof theory. Furthermore, it is shown that Gentzen, in his first paper of 1933, which heavily draws on Hertz, proves a normal form result which corresponds to the completeness of prepositional SLD-resolution in logic programming
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    Curtis Franks (2011). Cut as Consequence. History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (4):349-379.
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