David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Studia Logica 91 (1):25 - 51 (2009)
The Ontological Square is a categorial scheme that combines two metaphysical distinctions: that between types (or universals ) and tokens (or particulars ) on the one hand, and that between characters (or features ) and their substrates (or bearers ) on the other hand. The resulting four-fold classification of things comprises particular substrates, called substances , universal substrates, called kinds , particular characters, called modes or moments , and universal characters, called attributes . Things are joined together in facts by primitive ontological ties or nexus . This article describes a logic that is meant to capture the basic intuitions behind the Ontological Square. Given a minimal correspondence between atomic logical form and ontological structure, the commitment to nexus as a distinct ontological category entails a rehabilitation of copulae as ties of predication. Thus, the Logic of the Ontological Square is a copula calculus rather than a predicate calculus; its soundness and completeness can be established with respect to a model akin to a so-called first-order semantics for standard second-order logic.
|Keywords||Universals particulars substances modes formal ontology predication copula|
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References found in this work BETA
E. J. Lowe (2005). The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. Oxford University Press.
D. M. Armstrong (1989). Universals: An Opinionated Introduction. Westview Press.
Keith Campbell (1990). Abstract Particulars. B. Blackwell.
Terence Parsons (1990). Events in the Semantics of English: A Study in Subatomic Semantics. The MIT Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Luc Schneider (2013). Whatever Binds the World's Innermost Core Together Outline of a General Theory of Ontic Predication. Axiomathes 23 (2):419-442.
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