The neurotechnological cerebral subject: Persistence of implicit and explicit gender norms in a network of change [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Neuroethics 5 (3):261-274 (2012)
Abstract Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies. This paper explores whether neurotechnological apparatuses may—due to their hybridity and malleability—bear potentials for a change in gender based attributions that have been historically legitimized by apparently natural differences between women and men. Or, in contrast, which gendered ascriptions are (again) produced in theories and applications according to the normative demands for the bio-techno-social cerebral subject situated in neoliberal power relations. An exploration of three main fields of current developments, the neurotechnological apparatus of brain-computer-interfaces, the technologies for brain tuning and the discourses in neuroeconomics, reveals first insights on these gender aspects in reliance with the ethical/political debate. Moreover, this paper concretizes questions for further research on gender and ethical aspects in the field of neurotechnologies. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s12152-011-9129-1 Authors Sigrid Schmitz, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, Alserstraße 23/22, 1080 Vienna, Austria Journal Neuroethics Online ISSN 1874-5504 Print ISSN 1874-5490.
|Keywords||Neurotechnologies Neuroenhancement Cerebral subject Optimization Gender and ethics|
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Anne Fausto-Sterling & Edward Stein (2004). Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Hypatia 19 (3):203-208.
David P. McCabe & Alan D. Castel (2008). Seeing is Believing: The Effect of Brain Images on Judgments of Scientific Reasoning. Cognition 107 (1):343-352.
Henry Greely, Barbara Sahakian, John Harris, Ronald Kessler, Gazzaniga C., Campbell Michael, Farah Philip & J. Martha (2008). Towards Responsible Use of Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs by the Healthy. Philosophical Explorations 456 (7223):702--705.
Karen Barad (2006). Posthumanist Performativity : Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter. In Deborah Orr (ed.), Belief, Bodies, and Being: Feminist Reflections on Embodiment. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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