David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Developmental Science 14 (3):530-539 (2011)
Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. ‘this is the way it goes’), along with pedagogical cues signaling culturally important information, and with social-pragmatic marking that this action is a token of a familiar type. In the current experiment, we exposed children to novel actions with no normative language, and we systematically varied pedagogical and social-pragmatic cues in an attempt to identify which of them, if either, would lead children to normative interpretations. We found that young 3-year-old children inferred normativity without any normative language and without any pedagogical cues. The only cue they used was adult socialpragmatic marking of the action as familiar, as if it were a token of a well-known type (as opposed to performing it, as if inventing it on the spot). These results suggest that – in the absence of explicit normative language – young children interpret adult actions as normatively governed based mainly on the intentionality (perhaps signaling conventionality) with which they are performed.
|Keywords||normativity young children social cognition social norms norm enforcement|
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Citations of this work BETA
Marco Fh Schmidt, Hannes Rakoczy & Michael Tomasello (2012). Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation. Cognition 124 (3):325-333.
Patricia A. Herrmann, Cristine H. Legare, Paul L. Harris & Harvey Whitehouse (2013). Stick to the Script: The Effect of Witnessing Multiple Actors on Children's Imitation. Cognition 129 (3):536-543.
Cristine H. Legare, Nicole J. Wen, Patricia A. Herrmann & Harvey Whitehouse (2015). Imitative Flexibility and the Development of Cultural Learning. Cognition 142:351-361.
Hisashi Nakao & Kristin Andrews (2014). Ready to Teach or Ready to Learn: A Critique of the Natural Pedagogy Theory. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):465-483.
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