David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Ethics and Behavior 4 (1):23 – 42 (1994)
Altruistic behavior and motivation has traditionally been regarded as a defense mechanism defined by the vicissitudes of instinctual gratification. In this article, we suggest that there exists a substantial body of evidence from the fields of ethology, infant research, and experimental psychology to support the existence of an independently motivated altruism that is nondefensive in nature. We attempt to show how the view of altruism as a universal motivational system stems from the recent developments in evolutionary theory and contributes to our understanding of intrapsychic factors influencing human behavior in general and the process of psychotherapy in particular. It is not our goal to prove the existence of "pure altruism" that can never be derived from selfish motives. Rather, our thesis is that self-oriented and altruistic motivations are equal and essential partners in human evolution and development. It is the optimal balance of these two forces that is necessary for evolutionary advancement and for psychological health.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
C. Daniel Batson (1991). The Altruism Question: Toward a Social-Psychological Answer. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
J. H. Crook (1980). The Evolution of Human Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Alejandro Rosas (2002). Psychological and Evolutionary Evidence for Altruism. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):93-107.
Gwen J. Broude (2002). Can't We All Just Be Altruistic? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):253-254.
Dale Jamieson (2002). Sober and Wilson on Psychological Altruism. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (3):702–710.
Bart Voorzanger (1994). Bioaltruism Reconsidered. Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):75-84.
Christine Clavien (2012). Altruistic Emotional Motivation: An Argument in Favour of Psychological Altruism. In Katie Plaisance & Thomas Reydon (eds.), Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer Press.
Stephen G. Morris (2005). Identifying the Explanatory Weakness of Strong Altruism: The Needle in the `Haystack Model'. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1124-1134.
James A. van Slyke (2010). Cognitive and Evolutionary Factors in the Emergence of Human Altruism. Zygon 45 (4):841-859.
David Sloan Wilson (1992). On the Relationship Between Evolutionary and Psychological Definitions of Altruism and Selfishness. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68.
Alan carter (2005). Evolution and the Problem of Altruism. Philosophical Studies 123 (3):213-230.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads26 ( #65,557 of 1,098,834 )
Recent downloads (6 months)7 ( #33,586 of 1,098,834 )
How can I increase my downloads?