Civic Biology and the Origin of the School Antievolution Movement

Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):409 - 433 (2008)
Abstract
In discussing the origins of the antievolution movement in American high schools within the framework of science and religion, much is overlooked about the influence of educational trends in shaping this phenomenon. This was especially true in the years before the 1925 Scopes trial, the beginnings of the school antievolution movement. There was no sudden realization in the 1920's – sixty years after the "Origin of Species" was published – that Darwinism conflicted with the Bible, but until evolution was being taught in the high schools, there was no impetus to outlaw it. The creation of "civic biology" curricula in the late 1910's and early 20's, spearheaded by a close-knit community of textbook authors, brought evolution into the high school classroom as part of a complete reshaping of "biology" as a school subject. It also incorporated progressive ideologies about the purposes of compulsory public education in shaping society, and civic biology was fundamentally focused on the applications of the life sciences to human life. Antievolution legislation was part of a broader response to the ideologies of the new biology field, and was a reaction not only to the content of the new subject, but to the increasingly centralized control and regulation of education. Viewing the early school antievolution movement through the science-religion conflict is an artifact of the Scopes trial's re-creation of its origins. What largely caused support for the school antievolution movement in the South and particularly Tennessee were concerns over public education, which biology came to epitomize.
Keywords American Book Company  antievolution  biology education  biology textbooks  Benjamin C. Gruenberg  civic biology  George W. Hunter  science and religion  Scopes trial
Categories (categorize this paper)
Options
 Save to my reading list
Follow the author(s)
My bibliography
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Revision history Request removal from index
 
Download options
PhilPapers Archive


Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy on self-archival     Papers currently archived: 11,399
External links
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library
References found in this work BETA
Citations of this work BETA
Adam R. Shapiro (2014). Darwin's Foil: The Evolving Uses of William Paley's Natural Theology 1802–2005. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:114-123.
John L. Rudolph (2011). Science Education: History at the Edge. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (2):270-273.
Similar books and articles
Chris Renwick (2014). Response to Stephen T. Casper and Steve Fuller. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (4):515-521.
Kenneth M. Ludmerer (2011). Abraham Flexner and Medical Education. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (1):8-16.
David Hartley (2003). The Instrumentalisation of the Expressive in Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):6 - 19.
Analytics

Monthly downloads

Added to index

2011-05-29

Total downloads

18 ( #94,527 of 1,102,965 )

Recent downloads (6 months)

2 ( #183,254 of 1,102,965 )

How can I increase my downloads?

My notes
Sign in to use this feature


Discussion
Start a new thread
Order:
There  are no threads in this forum
Nothing in this forum yet.