Local definitions in degeree structures: The Turing jump, hyperdegrees and beyond

Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (2):226-239 (2007)
There are $\Pi_5$ formulas in the language of the Turing degrees, D, with ≤, ∨ and $\vedge$ , that define the relations $x" \leq y"$ , x" = y" and so $x \in L_{2}(y)=\{x\geqy|x"=y"\}$ in any jump ideal containing $0^(\omega)$ . There are also $\Sigma_6$ & $\Pi_6$ and $\Pi_8$ formulas that define the relations w = x" and w = x', respectively, in any such ideal I. In the language with just ≤ the quantifier complexity of each of these definitions increases by one. On the other hand, no Π2 or Σ2 formula in the language with just ≤ defines L2 or $x\inL_{2}(y)$ . Our arguments and constructions are purely degree theoretic without any appeals to absoluteness considerations, set theoretic methods or coding of models of arithmetic. As a corollary, we see that every automorphism of I is fixed on every degree above 0" and every relation on I that is invariant under double jump or joining with 0" is definable over I if and only if it is definable in second order arithmetic with set quantification ranging over sets whose degrees are in I. Similar direct coding arguments show that every hyperjump ideal I is rigid and biinterpretable with second order arithmetic with set quantification ranging over sets with hyperdegrees in I. Analogous results hold for various coarser degree structures
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