|Abstract||If scientists rely on assumptions rather than logic, empirical confirmation, and falsification, they are no longer doing science but ideology – which is, by definition, unethical. As a recent US National Academy of Sciences report put it, “bad science is always unethical.”1 This article discusses several ways in which toxicologists can fall into ideology – bad, therefore unethical, science. In part because of the increasing expense of pollution control, some toxicologists have been reexamining pollution dose-response curves that are non-monotonic, that is, curves in which the direction of some response changes with increasing or decreasing dose.2 Ethanol is a classic example of a non-monotonic dose-response curve because moderate drinking is associated with lower risks of heart disease, whereas heavy drinking is associated with higher risks.3,4 If some low-dose pollutants exhibit adaptive or “beneficial effects,”5 this might suggest re-thinking pollution regulations which presuppose linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-response curves.|
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||No categories specified (fix it)|
|Through your library||Only published papers are available at libraries|
Similar books and articles
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2001). Radiobiological Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience. Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
K. S. Shrader-Frechette (2000). Radiobiogical Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience. Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
Zeno G. Swijtink (1990). Theory of the Apparatus and Theory of the Phenomena: The Case of Low Dose Electron Microscopy. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:573 - 584.
Kristan Shrader-Frechete (2001). Using a Thought Experiment to Clarify a Radiobiological Controversy. Synthese 128 (3):319 - 342.
Helen E. Longino (1989). Biological Effects of Low Level Radiation: Values, Dose-Response Models, Risk Estimates. Synthese 81 (3):391 - 404.
Kevin C. Elliott (2006). A Novel Account of Scientific Anomaly: Help for the Dispute Over Low-Dose Biochemical Effects. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):790-802.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Better Policy Through Better Science: Using Metascience to Improve Dose-Response Curves in Biology and in ICRP Ecological Risk Assessment.
Kristin Shrader‐Frechette (2004). Using Metascience to Improve Dose‐Response Curves in Biology: Better Policy Through Better Science. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1026-1037.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2004). Using Metascience to Improve Dose-Response Curves in Biology: Better Policy Through Better Science. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1026-1037.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2000). Ethics and the Challenge of Low-Dose Exposures. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2:167-184.
Added to index2009-12-21
Total downloads17 ( #72,089 of 556,896 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #64,931 of 556,896 )
How can I increase my downloads?