Student labor and evolution of education

World Futures 60 (3):183 – 193 (2004)
The evolution of teaching is examined in three stages: apprenticeship, classical schooling, and mass schooling. All three stages use different social technologies to operate. The mass schooling is analyzed from the point of view of economic anthropology developed by Karl Polanyi, as a non-market economic system. Mass schooling uses the forms of motivation found in archaic, tribal economies: students do their homework and attend school out of considerations of reciprocity. Schools must be treated differently with respect to their improvement. School improvement should be based on perfecting existing non-market economic mechanisms, not on plunging schools into market economy.
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