David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Foundations of Science 1 (2):171-200 (1995)
Human and machine discovery are gradual problem-solving processes of searching large problem spaces for incompletely defined goal objects. Research on problem solving has usually focused on search of an instance space (empirical exploration) and a hypothesis space (generation of theories). In scientific discovery, search must often extend to other spaces as well: spaces of possible problems, of new or improved scientific instruments, of new problem representations, of new concepts, and others. This paper focuses especially on the processes for finding new problem representations and new concepts, which are relatively new domains for research on discovery.Scientific discovery has usually been studied as an activity of individual investigators, but these individuals are positioned in a larger social structure of science, being linked by the blackboard of open publication (as well as by direct collaboration). Even while an investigator is working alone, the process is strongly influenced by knowledge and skills stored in memory as a result of previous social interaction. In this sense, all research on discovery, including the investigations on individual processes discussed in this paper, is social psychology, or even sociology.
|Keywords||Machine discovery Heuristic search Concept discovery Psychology of discovery Representation Analogy Mutilated Checkerboard Surprise heuristic Learning from examples Intuition|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
John H. Holland (1986). Induction Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines (1996). Causation, Prediction, and Search. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113-123.
Alfred Tarski (1956). Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
George Pólya (1968). Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning. Princeton, N.J.,Princeton University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Mehul Shah (2007). Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.
Stephen Downes (1990). Herbert Simon's Computational Models of Scientific Discovery. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:97-108.
Wei-Min Shen (1995). The Process of Discovery. Foundations of Science 1 (2):233-251.
Toby J. Sommer (2001). Suppression of Scientific Research: Bahramdipity and Nulltiple Scientific Discoveries. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):77-104.
Mario Alai (2004). A.I., Scientific Discovery and Realism. Minds and Machines 14 (1):21-42.
Aldo Zanga & Jean-Fran (2004). Implicit Learning in Rule Induction and Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):55 – 83.
Herbert A. Simon (1973). Does Scientific Discovery Have a Logic? Philosophy of Science 40 (4):471-480.
Angelo M. Petroni (1993). Conventionalism, Scientific Discovery and the Sociology of Knowledge. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7 (3):225 – 240.
Francesco Amigoni, Viola Schiaffonati & Marco Somalvico (2000). A Multilevel Architecture of Creative Dynamic Agency. Foundations of Science 5 (2):157-184.
Jan M. Zytkow & Herbert A. Simon (1988). Normative Systems of Discovery and Logic of Search. Synthese 74 (1):65 - 90.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads20 ( #160,351 of 1,781,276 )
Recent downloads (6 months)4 ( #141,907 of 1,781,276 )
How can I increase my downloads?