On the Kleene degrees of π11 sets

Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (2):352 - 359 (1986)
Abstract
Let A and B be subsets of the reals. Say that A κ ≥ B, if there is a real a such that the relation "x ∈ B" is uniformly Δ 1 (a, A) in L[ ω x,a,A 1 , x,a,A]. This reducibility induces an equivalence relation $\equiv_\kappa$ on the sets of reals; the $\equiv_\kappa$ -equivalence class of a set is called its Kleene degree. Let K be the structure that consists of the Kleene degrees and the induced partial order K ≥. A substructure of K that is of interest is P, the Kleene degrees of the Π 1 1 sets of reals. If sharps exist, then there is not much to P, as Steel [9] has shown that the existence of sharps implies that P has only two elements: the degree of the empty set and the degree of the complete Π 1 1 set. Legrand [4] used the hypothesis that there is a real whose sharp does not exist to show that there are incomparable elements in P; in the context of V = L, Hrbacek has shown that P is dense and has no minimal pairs. The Hrbacek results led Simpson [6] to make the following conjecture: if V = L, then p forms a universal homogeneous upper semilattice with 0 and 1. Simpson's conjecture is shown to be false by showing that if V = L, then Godel's maximal thin Π 1 1 set is the infimum of two strictly larger elements of P. The second main result deals with the notion of jump in K. Let A' be the complete Kleene enumerable set relative to A. Say that A is low-n if A (n) has the same degree as $\varnothing^{(n)}$ , and A is high-n if A (n) has the same degree as $\varnothing^{(n + 1)}$ . Simpson and Weitkamp [7] have shown that there is a high (high-1) incomplete Π 1 1 set in L. They have also shown that various other Π 1 1 sets are neither high nor low in L. Legrand [5] extended their results by showing that, if there is a real x such that x # does not exist, then there is an element of P that, for all n, is neither low-n nor high-n. In § 2, ZFC is used to show that, for all n, if A is Π 1 1 and low-n then A is Borel. The proof uses a strengthened version of Jensen's theorem on sequences of admissible ordinals that appears in [7, Simpson-Weitkamp]
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