David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):452-484 (2003)
Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of TUT and higher levels of word-fragment completion whilst encoding categorical relative to random stimuli, supporting the role of a distributed resource in the maintenance of TUT. In addition the results of all three experiments suggested that experiencing TUT during study had a measurable effect on subsequent retrieval. TUT was associated with increased frequency of false alarms at retrieval (Experiment One). In the subsequent experiments TUT was associated with no advantage to retrieval based on recollection, by manipulating instructions at encoding (Experiment Two), and/or at retrieval (Experiment Three). The implications of the results of all three experiments are discussed in terms of recent accounts of memory retrieval and conscious awareness.
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Cynthia Schupak & Jesse Rosenthal (2009). Excessive Daydreaming: A Case History and Discussion of Mind Wandering and High Fantasy Proneness. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):290-292.
J. Smallwood, J. B. Davies, D. Heim, F. Finnigan, M. Sudberry & Obonsawin M. O'Connor R. (2004). Subjective Experience and the Attentional Lapse: Task Engagement and Disengagement During Sustained Attention. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):657-90.
Jayne Bigelsen & Cynthia Schupak (2011). Compulsive Fantasy: Proposed Evidence of an Under-Reported Syndrome Through a Systematic Study of 90 Self-Identified Non-Normative Fantasizers. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1634-1648.
William S. Helton, Rosalie P. Kern & Donieka R. Walker (2009). Conscious Thought and the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):600-607.
William S. Helton, James Head & Simon Kemp (2011). Natural Disaster Induced Cognitive Disruption: Impacts on Action Slips. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1732-1737.
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