David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):452-484 (2003)
Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of TUT and higher levels of word-fragment completion whilst encoding categorical relative to random stimuli, supporting the role of a distributed resource in the maintenance of TUT. In addition the results of all three experiments suggested that experiencing TUT during study had a measurable effect on subsequent retrieval. TUT was associated with increased frequency of false alarms at retrieval (Experiment One). In the subsequent experiments TUT was associated with no advantage to retrieval based on recollection, by manipulating instructions at encoding (Experiment Two), and/or at retrieval (Experiment Three). The implications of the results of all three experiments are discussed in terms of recent accounts of memory retrieval and conscious awareness.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson (1977). Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes. Psychological Review 84 (3):231-59.
Philip M. Merikle & Daniel Smilek (2001). Perception Without Awareness: Perspectives From Cognitive Psychology. Cognition 79 (1):115-34.
Daniel C. Dennett (2001). Are We Explaining Consciousness Yet? Cognition 79 (1):221-37.
Nancy Kanwisher (2001). Neural Events and Perceptual Awareness. Cognition 79 (1):89-113.
Citations of this work BETA
Jonathan W. Schooler, Jonathan Smallwood, Kalina Christoff, Todd C. Handy, Erik D. Reichle & Michael A. Sayette (2011). Meta-Awareness, Perceptual Decoupling and the Wandering Mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):319-326.
J. Smallwood, J. B. Davies, D. Heim, F. Finnigan, M. Sudberry & Obonsawin M. O'Connor R. (2004). Subjective Experience and the Attentional Lapse: Task Engagement and Disengagement During Sustained Attention. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):657-90.
James A. Cheyne, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2006). Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Conscious Awareness and Everyday Cognitive Failures. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):578-592.
Jonathan Smallwood, Rory C. O'Connor, Megan V. Sudbery & Marc Obonsawin (2007). Mind-Wandering and Dysphoria. Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):816-842.
Paul Seli, James Allan Cheyne & Daniel Smilek (2012). Attention Failures Versus Misplaced Diligence: Separating Attention Lapses From Speed–Accuracy Trade-Offs. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):277-291.
Similar books and articles
Douglas L. Hintzman (1999). Retrieval Dynamics and Brain Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):453-454.
Wim de Neys, Walter Schaeken & G. (2005). Working Memory and Counterexample Retrieval for Causal Conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (2):123 – 150.
Michael A. Bishop (1999). Why Thought Experiments Are Not Arguments. Philosophy of Science 66 (4):534-541.
John C. Trueswell & Anna Papafragou, Perceiving and Remembering Events Cross-Linguistically: Evidence From Dual-Task Paradigms.
Denny Borsboom, Gideon J. Mellenbergh & Jaap van Heerden (2002). Functional Thought Experiments. Synthese 130 (3):379 - 387.
Elke Brendel (2004). Intuition Pumps and the Proper Use of Thought Experiments. Dialectica 58 (1):89–108.
Wai-Tat Fu (2011). A Dynamic Context Model of Interactive Behavior. Cognitive Science 35 (5):874-904.
Eyal Reingold (2002). On the Perceptual Specificity of Memory Representations. Memory 10 (5/6):365-379.
M. J., F. S., M. Lowe & M. Obonsawin (2003). Task Unrelated Thought Whilst Encoding Information. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):452-484.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads7 ( #304,000 of 1,726,249 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #369,877 of 1,726,249 )
How can I increase my downloads?