Four teleological orders of human action

Philosophical Topics 12 (3):213-230 (1981)
By “voluntary actions” we mean the actions that are willed to be done in a prior volition, and which are realized by our own power, rather than by an external force. Running up the slope of a hill for exercise is a voluntary action, but falling down the slope is not. The volition, or the “decision” to undertake an action, may be the outcome of a deliberation about which of several actions to undertake, or it may be a spontaneous decision to engage in a certain action, without being preceded by a deliberative process
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DOI 10.5840/philtopics198112313
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