David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (1):45 – 78 (2003)
When does a human being begin to exist? We argue that it is possible, through a combination of biological fact and philosophical analysis, to provide a definitive answer to this question. We lay down a set of conditions for being a human being, and we determine when, in the course of normal fetal development, these conditions are first satisfied. Issues dealt with along the way include: modes of substance-formation, twinning, the nature of the intra-uterine environment, and the nature of the relation between fetus and mother (connection, parthood, dependence).
|Keywords||Human development embryontology pregnancy environment niche fetus|
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Citations of this work BETA
J. Morris (2012). Substance Ontology Cannot Determine the Moral Status of Embryos. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (4):331-350.
Don Marquis (2007). The Moral-Principle Objection to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):190–206.
A. A. Howsepian (2008). Four Queries Concerning the Metaphysics of Early Human Embryogenesis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (2):140-157.
E. Christian Brugger (2009). “Other Selves”: Moral and Legal Proposals Regarding the Personhood of Cryopreserved Human Embryos. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (2):105-129.
Lynn M. Morgan (2006). "Life Begins When They Steal Your Bicycle": Cross-Cultural Practices of Personhood at the Beginnings and Ends of Life. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (1):8-15.
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