David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Perspectives on Science 17 (1):pp. 78-104 (2009)
Much recent scholarly treatment of the theoretical and practical underpinnings of biological taxonomy from the 16 th to the 18 th centuries has failed to adequately consider the importance of the mode of generation of some living entity in the determination of its species membership, as well as in the determination of the ontological profile of the species itself. In this article, I show how a unique set of considerations was brought to bear in the classification of creatures whose species membership was thought to be entirely determined by descent from parents of the same kind, in contrast with creatures whose generation could proceed spontaneously or through budding. Concretely, the relevance of mode of generation to the practice of taxonomy means that we must rethink the role of the early modern botanists in the development of a universal science of applied taxonomy. I argue that the task of classifying ‘higher’ biological kinds—those united, in Kant’s language, through their generative power—is one with its unique set of problems, arising as much from classical anthropology as from natural philosophy, and that the conception of zoological species that emerged in the early modern period was a consequence of these problems, and not primarily of the ‘applied metaphysics’ of classificatory practice.
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References found in this work BETA
David L. Hull (1965). The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy--Two Thousand Years of Stasis (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15 (60):314-326.
Lorraine Daston (2004). Type Specimens and Scientific Memory. Critical Inquiry 31 (1):153-182.
Roger Ariew (1998). Leibniz On the Unicorn and Various Other Curiosities. Early Science and Medicine 3 (4):267-288.
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