The functional neuroanatomy of awareness: With a focus on the role of various anatomical systems in the control of intermodal attention
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):455-81 (1997)
This review considers a number of recent theories on the neural basis of consciousness, with particular attention to the theories of Bogen, Crick, Llinás, Newman, and Changeux. These theories allot different roles to various key brain areas, in particular the reticular and intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and the cortex. Crick's hypothesis is that awareness is a function of reverberating corticothalamic loops and that the spotlight ofintramodalattention is controlled by the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. He also proposed different mechanisms for attention and intention . The current review presents a new hypothesis, based on elements from these hypotheses, includingintermodalattention and olfaction and pain, which may pose problems for Crick's original theory. This work reviews the possible role in awareness and intermodal attention and intention of the cholinergic system in the basal forebrain and the tegmentum; the reticular, the intralaminar, and the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei; the raphe and locus coeruleus; the reticular formation; the ventral striatum and extended amygdala; insula cortex, and other selected cortical areas. Both clinical and basic research data are covered. The conclusion is reached that the brain may work by largely nonlinear parallel processing and much intramodal shifts of attention may be effected by intracortical, or multiple corticothalamic mechanisms . But this is constrained by the functional anatomy of the circuits concerned and waking “awareness” is modulated by the many “nonspecific” systems . But the principal agents for intermodal attention shifts, the “searchlight,” may be two key nuclei of the cholinergic system in the mesencephalon. Clinical loss of consciousness results from damage to these nuclei but not from damage to the cholinergic nucleus basalis of the basal forebrain
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
J. B. Newman (1995). Thalamic Contributions to Attention and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):172-93.
Joseph E. Bogen (1995). On the Neurophysiology of Consciousness, Part II: Constraining the Semantic Problem. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):137-58.
Michael I. Posner (1994). Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 91:7398-7403.
Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1995). Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):22-51.
J. L. Barbur, J. D. G. Watson, R. D. G. Frackowiak & Semir Zeki (1993). Conscious Visual Perception Without V. Brain 116:1293-1302.
Citations of this work BETA
Richard J. Stevenson (2009). Phenomenal and Access Consciousness in Olfaction. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1004-1017.
Richard J. Stevenson (2011). Olfactory Illusions: Where Are They? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1887-1898.
M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier & J. H. Fallon (2000). Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiologic Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):370-386.
J. A. Cheyne, S. D. Rueffer & I. R. Newby-Clark (1999). Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations During Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):319-337.
R. P. Behrendt (2003). Hallucinations: Synchronisation of Thalamocortical ? Oscillations Underconstrained by Sensory Input. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):413-451.
Similar books and articles
L. M. Vaina (1995). Akinetopsia, Achromatopsia and Blindsight: Recent Studies on Perception Without Awareness. Synthese 105 (3):253-271.
Victor A. F. Lamme & Rogier Landman (2001). Attention Sheds No Light on the Origin of Phenomenal Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):993-993.
M. F. Matthews Scheier & Carver K. A. (1983). Focus of Attention and Awareness of Bodily States. In G. Underwood (ed.), Aspects of Consciousness, Volume 3: Awareness and Self-Awareness. Academic Press
Declan Smithies (2011). Attention is Rational-Access Consciousness. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press 247--273.
Ysbrand D. Van der Werf, Menno P. Witter & Henk J. Groenewegen (2002). The Intralaminar and Midline Nuclei of the Thalamus. Anatomical and Functional Evidence for Participation in Processes of Arousal and Awareness. Brain Research Reviews 39 (2):107-140.
Larry L. Jacoby, D. Ste-Marie & J. P. Toth (1993). Redefining Automaticity: Unconscious Influences, Awareness, and Control. In A. D. Baddeley & Lawrence Weiskrantz (eds.), Attention: Selection, Awareness,and Control. Oxford University Press
Antonino Raffone, Angela Tagini & Narayanan Srinivasan (2010). Mindfulness and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention and Awareness. Zygon 45 (3):627-646.
Uriah Kriegel (2004). The Functional Role of Consciousness: A Phenomenological Approach. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3 (2):171-93.
Vincent Bergeron (2007). Anatomical and Functional Modularity in Cognitive Science: Shifting the Focus. Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):175 – 195.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads248 ( #9,529 of 1,893,548 )
Recent downloads (6 months)77 ( #6,468 of 1,893,548 )
How can I increase my downloads?