Exploitations and their complications: The necessity of identifying the multiple forms of exploitation in pharmaceutical trials
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Bioethics 26 (5):251-258 (2010)
Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other (usually wealthier) parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial.Many commentators have argued that a single form of exploitation takes place during human subject research in LMICs. These commentators do not, however, agree as to what kind of moral wrong exploitation is or when exploitation is morally impermissible. In this paper, I have two primary goals. First, I will argue for a taxonomy of exploitation that identifies three distinct forms of exploitation. While each of these forms of exploitation has its critics, I will argue that they can each be developed into plausible accounts of exploitation tied to different vulnerabilities and different forms of wrongdoing. Second, I will argue that each of these forms of exploitation can coexist in single situations, including human subject trials of pharmaceuticals. This lesson is important, since different forms of exploitation in a single relationship can influence, among other things, whether the relationship is morally permissible
|Keywords||pharmaceutical testing research ethics exploitation|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Agomoni Ganguli Mitra & Nikola Biller-Andorno (2013). Vulnerability and Exploitation in a Globalized World. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):91-102.
Similar books and articles
Jeremy Snyder (2010). Multiple Forms of Exploitation in International Research: The Need for Multiple Standards of Fairness. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):40-41.
Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
Vittorio Bufacchi (2002). The Injustice of Exploitation. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):1-15.
Paul McLaughlin (2008). The Ethics of Exploitation. Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (3):5-16.
Allen W. Wood (1995). Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.
Agomoni Ganguli Mitra (2013). Off‐Shoring Clinical Research: Exploitation and the Reciprocity Constraint. Developing World Bioethics 13 (3):111-118.
Angela Ballantyne (2008). Benefits to Research Subjects in International Trials: Do They Reduce Exploitation or Increase Undue Inducement? Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):178-191.
Leonardo D. de Castro (1995). Exploitation in the Use of Human Subjects for Medical Experimentation: A Re-Examination of Basic Issues. Bioethics 9 (3):259–268.
Robert Mayer (2005). Guestworkers and Exploitation. Review of Politics 67 (2):311--334.
Tea Logar (2010). Exploitation as Wrongful Use: Beyond Taking Advantage of Vulnerabilities. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 25 (3):329-346.
Mikhail Valdman (2009). A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation. Philosophers' Imprint 9 (6):1-14.
Paresh Chattopadhyay (1998). Value and Exploitation: Marx's Problem and Skillman's Solution. Science and Society 62 (2):218 - 240.
J. R. Kuntz (2009). A Litmus Test for Exploitation: James Stacey Taylor's Stakes and Kidneys. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (6):552-572.
Robert Mayer (2007). What's Wrong with Exploitation? Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):137–150.
Added to index2010-10-07
Total downloads26 ( #75,378 of 1,410,305 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #68,075 of 1,410,305 )
How can I increase my downloads?