Multiple Forms of Exploitation in International Research: The Need for Multiple Standards of Fairness

American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):40-41 (2010)
Abstract
Ballantyne correctly notes the need for clarification as to the standard of fairness that should guide nonexploitative international research on human subjects. When accounts of exploitation are applied to pharmaceutical development (as well as other areas), there is too often an uncritical acceptance that exploitation involves a form of unfairness. Moreover, these authors typically fail to produce an account of fairness by which exploitation should be identified. Ballantyne should be applauded for her attempt to inject greater clarity into these debates. Her preferred standard of fairness is problematic, however. Ballantyne fails to distinguish between at least two forms of exploitation, tied to two distinct forms of unfairness, that can take place in international research on human subjects. As I argue here, the first form of exploitation derives from transactional unfairness where researchers take special unfair advantage of research subjects. The second form of exploitation occurs when researchers take advantage of background injustices that disadvantage research subjects. As a result of this failure to differentiate between different forms of exploitation, Ballantyne misidentifies the requirements of fairness for engaging in nonexploitative international human subject research.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Options
 Save to my reading list
Follow the author(s)
My bibliography
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Revision history Request removal from index
 
Download options
PhilPapers Archive


Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy on self-archival     Papers currently archived: 11,105
External links
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library
References found in this work BETA
Alan Wertheimer (1996). Exploitation. Princeton University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Similar books and articles
Vittorio Bufacchi (2002). The Injustice of Exploitation. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):1-15.
Robert Mayer (2003). Payday Loans and Exploitation. Public Affairs Quarterly 17 (3):197--217.
Robert Mayer (2005). Guestworkers and Exploitation. Review of Politics 67 (2):311--334.
Analytics

Monthly downloads

Added to index

2010-09-14

Total downloads

16 ( #102,879 of 1,101,768 )

Recent downloads (6 months)

5 ( #59,646 of 1,101,768 )

How can I increase my downloads?

My notes
Sign in to use this feature


Discussion
Start a new thread
Order:
There  are no threads in this forum
Nothing in this forum yet.