David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850 (2000)
The paradigmatic assumption that REM sleep is the physiological equivalent of dreaming is in need of fundamental revision. A mounting body of evidence suggests that dreaming and REM sleep are dissociable states, and that dreaming is controlled by forebrain mechanisms. Recent neuropsychological, radiological, and pharmacological findings suggest that the cholinergic brain stem mechanisms that control the REM state can only generate the psychological phenomena of dreaming through the mediation of a second, probably dopaminergic, forebrain mechanism. The latter mechanism (and thus dreaming itself) can also be activated by a variety of nonREM triggers. Dreaming can be manipulated by dopamine agonists and antagonists with no concomitant change in REM frequency, duration, and density. Dreaming can also be induced by focal forebrain stimulation and by complex partial (forebrain) seizures during nonREM sleep, when the involvement of brainstem REM mechanisms is precluded. Likewise, dreaming is obliterated by focal lesions along a specific (probably dopaminergic) forebrain pathway, and these lesions do not have any appreciable effects on REM frequency, duration, and density. These findings suggest that the forebrain mechanism in question is the final common path to dreaming and that the brainstem oscillator that controls the REM state is just one of the many arousal triggers that can activate this forebrain mechanism. The “REM-on” mechanism (like its various NREM equivalents) therefore stands outside the dream process itself, which is mediated by an independent, forebrain “dream-on” mechanism. Key Words: acetylcholine; brainstem; dopamine; dreaming; forebrain; NREM; REM; sleep.
|Keywords||acetylcholine brainstem dopamine dreaming forebrain NREM REM sleep|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Nadav Matalon (2011). The Riddle of Dreams. Philosophical Psychology 24 (4):517 - 536.
Jennifer M. Windt & Valdas Noreika (2011). How to Integrate Dreaming Into a General Theory of Consciousness—A Critical Review of Existing Positions and Suggestions for Future Research. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1091-1107.
Tracey L. Kahan & Stephen P. LaBerge (2011). Dreaming and Waking: Similarities and Differences Revisited. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):494-514.
J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.
Sue Llewellyn (2011). If Waking and Dreaming Consciousness Became de-Differentiated, Would Schizophrenia Result? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1059-1083.
Similar books and articles
Alexander A. Borbély & Lutz Wittmann (2000). Sleep, Not Rem Sleep, is the Royal Road to Dreams. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):911-912.
M. Bosinelli & P. C. Cicogna (2000). Rem and NRem Mentation: Nielsen's Model Once Again Supports the Supremacy of Rem. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):913-914.
J. F. Pagel (2000). Dreaming is Not a Non-Conscious Electrophysiologic State. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):984-988.
J. Allan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Schott & Robert Stickgold (2000). Dreaming and the Brain: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Conscious States. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):793-842; 904-1018; 1083-1121.
Anton Coenen (2000). The Divorce of Rem Sleep and Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):922-924.
J. Allan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Schott & Robert Stickgold (2000). Dream Science 2000: A Response to Commentaries on Dreaming and the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1019-1035.
J. Allan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Schott & Robert Stickgold (2003). Dreaming and the Brain: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Conscious States. In Edward F. Pace-Schott, Mark Solms, Mark Blagrove & Stevan Harnad (eds.), Sleep and Dreaming: Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Cambridge University Press. 793-842.
Amina Khambalia & Colin M. Shapiro (2000). A New Approach for Explaining Dreaming and Rem Sleep Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):558-559.
Corrado Cavallero (2000). Rem Sleep = Dreaming: The Never-Ending Story. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):916-917.
Mark Solms (2000). Forebrain Mechanisms of Dreaming Are Activated From a Variety of Sources. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1035-1040.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads101 ( #13,672 of 1,410,166 )
Recent downloads (6 months)8 ( #26,632 of 1,410,166 )
How can I increase my downloads?