David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Objectively, time does not pass, physics reveals no such phenomenon. While subjectively we find ourselves at a specific point in time, 'now', and we appear to pass from moment to moment, physics can accommodate neither of these concepts, thus there is no explanation of subjective transtemporal reality, or how an observation could possibly be made. A solution to the puzzle is proposed based on an analysis of the logical type of the system required to explain such subjective experience. Relativity requires that we consider the dimension of time on a par with the spatial dimensions, thus making a block universe inevitable. The concept of change can be recovered by considering a sequence of definitions of the block universe, and thus the passage of time can be considered to be the change of this definition, resulting in a sequence of block universes as transtemporal reality. However, the unitary wave function must subsume all possible block universes, all possibilities exist 'already', thus there is no becoming. As Barbour explains, each moment in time is a complete definition of the state of the whole four-dimensional universe, the sequence of states being static like the frames of a movie on the film. Since nothing passes from moment to moment it appears impossible that there could be any such thing as time that passes; this would require something of different logical type to the moments to account for such a phenomenon, and the moments are all that exist. What would be required is something that is to the moments as the projector is to the movie, something that contains all the moments and iterates the sequence. Clearly only the unitary system as a whole contains all the moments of any given sequence. Additionally, the only possible expression of the necessary logical type for an iterator is an emergent property of the system as a whole; only the system as a whole is of the correct logical type to change the functional frame of reference from one block universe to another, giving rise to the appearance of collapse described by Everett. Objectively this transtemporal process is the collapse dynamics, subjectively it is phenomenal consciousness passing through time.
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