David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Thinking and Reasoning 5 (1):67 – 92 (1999)
Humans appear to follow normative rules of inductive reasoning in "premise diversity tasks" that is, they know that dissimilar rather than similar evidence is better for generalising hypotheses. In three experiments, we use a "hypothesis limitation task" to compare a related inductive reasoning skill knowing how to limit hypotheses by using a negative test strategy. Participants are told that one category member has some property (e.g. Dogs have a merocrine gland) and are asked what evidence they would test to ensure that either all (generalisation) or only (limitation) category members have that property (e.g. All/Only mammals have merocrine glands; tests: wolf, bull, crocodile). Despite participants' reluctance to use negative tests in the Wason 2-4-6 task and other reasoning tasks, participants do use normatively correct negative tests in the hypothesis limitation task as often as they use diverse positive tests in the premise diversity task. Moreover, when given a hypothesis limitation task before a rule evaluation task (similar to the 2-4-6 task), the use of negative tests increases. Thus, when testing hypotheses, people can and do use the right kind of test strategy for the task.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Leontien de Kwaadsteniet, Nancy S. Kim & Jennelle E. Yopchick (2013). How Do Practising Clinicians and Students Apply Newly Learned Causal Information About Mental Disorders? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):112-117.
Similar books and articles
John McDonald (1992). Is Strong Inference Really Superior to Simple Inference? Synthese 92 (2):261 - 282.
Christian P. Janssen, Duncan P. Brumby, John Dowell, Nick Chater & Andrew Howes (2011). Identifying Optimum Performance Trade-Offs Using a Cognitively Bounded Rational Analysis Model of Discretionary Task Interleaving. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):123-139.
Dan Sperber (2002). Use or Misuse of the Selection Task? Rejoinder to Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby. Cognition 85 (3):277-290.
Pascal Wagner-Egger (2007). Conditional Reasoning and the Wason Selection Task: Biconditional Interpretation Instead of Reasoning Bias. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (4):484 – 505.
George L. Dunbar (2000). Traces of Reasoning with Pragmatic Schemas. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (2):173 – 181.
Christine Hoffmann & Helmut Crott (2004). Effects of Amount of Evidence and Range of Rule on the Use of Hypothesis and Target Tests by Groups in Rule-Discovery Tasks. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (4):321 – 354.
Joseph L. Austerweil & Thomas L. Griffiths (2011). Seeking Confirmation Is Rational for Deterministic Hypotheses. Cognitive Science 35 (3):499-526.
Jean E. Pretz & Corinne Zimmerman (2011). When the Goal Gets in the Way: The Interaction of Goal Specificity and Task Difficulty. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):405-430.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads9 ( #185,453 of 1,692,983 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #193,926 of 1,692,983 )
How can I increase my downloads?