David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Inquiry 27 (1-4):439 – 461 (1984)
The question whether an entity has rights is identified with that as to whether an intrinsic value resides in it which imposes obligations to foster it on those who can appreciate this value. There should be no difficulty in granting that animals have rights in this sense, but what of other natural objects and artifacts? It seems that various inanimate things, such as fine buildings and forests, often possess such intrinsic value, yet since they can only be fully actual in an observing consciousness the most basic such right is that of being observed from time to time. That, at least, is true of them as phenomenal objects. There must, however, be a thing in itself behind the phenomenal object and sometimes this may possess an intrinsic value which gives rise to rights, not a matter of the need to be actualized in an observing consciousness, though it is extremely difficult to reach reliable conclusions here
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References found in this work BETA
F. H. Bradley (1893/1969). Appearance and Reality. Clarendon Press.
Stephen R. L. Clark (1977/1984). The Moral Status of Animals. Oxford University Press.
R. G. Frey (1980). Interests and Rights: The Case Against Animals. Oxford University Press.
Michael Lockwood (1979). Singer on Killing and the Preference for Life. Inquiry 22 (1-4):157 – 170.
Citations of this work BETA
T. L. S. Sprigge (1987). Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature? Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (1):21-28.
Alastair Hannay (1987). The Claims of Consciousness: A Critical Survey. Inquiry 30 (December):395-434.
Arne Naess (1985). The World of Concrete Contents. Inquiry 28 (1-4):417 – 428.
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Jay E. Kantor (1980). The “Interests” of Natural Objects. Environmental Ethics 2 (2):163-171.
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