David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665 (2000)
Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational limitations, (3) the wrong norm being applied by the experimenter, and (4) a different construal of the task by the subject. In the debates about the viability of these alternative explanations, attention has been focused too narrowly on the modal response. In a series of experiments involving most of the classic tasks in the heuristics and biases literature, we have examined the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations of the normative/descriptive gap. Performance errors are a minor factor in the gap; computational limitations underlie non-normative responding on several tasks, particularly those that involve some type of cognitive decontextualization. Unexpected patterns of covariance can suggest when the wrong norm is being applied to a task or when an alternative construal of the task should be considered appropriate. Key Words: biases; descriptive models; heuristics; individual differences; normative models; rationality; reasoning.
|Keywords||biases descriptive models heuristics individual differences normative models rationality reasoning|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Jennifer Nagel (2012). Intuitions and Experiments: A Defense of the Case Method in Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):495-527.
Peter Carruthers (2013). Mindreading in Infancy. Mind and Language 28 (2):141-172.
Daniel M. Oppenheimer (2008). The Secret Life of Fluency. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (6):237-241.
Anna-Sara Malmgren (2011). Rationalism and the Content of Intuitive Judgements. Mind 120 (478):263-327.
Adam Arico, Brian Fiala, Robert F. Goldberg & Shaun Nichols (2011). The Folk Psychology of Consciousness. Mind and Language 26 (3):327-352.
Similar books and articles
Monica Bucciarelli (2000). Reasoning Strategies in Syllogisms: Evidence for Performance Errors Along with Computational Limitations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):669-670.
Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2000). Advancing the Rationality Debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):701-717.
Mike Oaksford & Jo Sellen (2000). Paradoxical Individual Differences in Conditional Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):691-692.
Paul A. Klaczynski (2000). Is Rationality Really “Bounded” by Information Processing Constraints? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):683-684.
Keith E. Stanovich Richard & F. West (1998). Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193 – 230.
Brian J. Scholl (1997). Reasoning, Rationality, and Architectural Resolution. Philosophical Psychology 10 (4):451-470.
X. T. Wang (2000). Beyond “Pardonable Errors by Subjects and Unpardonable Ones by Psychologists”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):699-700.
Alison Bacon, Simon Handley & Stephen Newstead (2003). Individual Differences in Strategies for Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 9 (2):133 – 168.
Elizabeth J. Newton & Maxwell J. Roberts (2003). Individual Differences Transcend the Rationality Debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):530-531.
Jonathan Baron (2000). Normative and Prescriptive Implications of Individual Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):668-669.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads159 ( #10,358 of 1,725,466 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #268,753 of 1,725,466 )
How can I increase my downloads?