David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):493-504 (2013)
This paper examines the origin, range and meaning of the Principle of Action and Reaction in Kant’s mechanics. On the received view, it is a version of Newton’s Third Law. I argue that Kant meant his principle as foundation for a Leibnizian mechanics. To find a ‘Newtonian’ law of action and reaction, we must look to Kant’s ‘dynamics,’ or theory of matter. I begin, in part I, by noting marked differences between Newton’s and Kant’s laws of action and reaction. I argue that these are explainable by Kant’s allegiance to a Leibnizian mechanics. I show (in part II) that Leibniz too had a model of action and reaction, at odds with Newton’s. Then I reconstruct how Jakob Hermann and Christian Wolff received Leibniz’s model. I present (in Part III) Kant’s early law of action and reaction for mechanics. I show that he devised it so as to solve extant problems in the Hermann-Wolff account. I reconstruct Kant’s views on ‘mechanical’ action and reaction in the 1780s, and highlight strong continuities with his earlier, pre-Critical stance. I use these continuities, and Kant’s earlier engagement with post-Leibnizians, to explain the un-Newtonian features of his law of action and reaction.
|Keywords||Kant Leibniz Christian Wolff Classical mechanics Dynamical laws Interaction|
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References found in this work BETA
Thomas Ahnert (2004). Newtonianism in Early Enlightenment Germany, C. 1720 to 1750: Metaphysics and the Critique of Dogmatic Philosophy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (3):471-491.
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Citations of this work BETA
Marius Stan (2012). Newton and Wolff: The Leibnizian Reaction to the Principia, 1716–1763. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.
Sheldon R. Smith (2013). Does Kant Have a Pre-Newtonian Picture of Force in the Balance Argument? An Account of How the Balance Argument Works. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):470-480.
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