David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Business Ethics 14 (3):207 - 217 (1995)
Most definitions of the concept of stakeholder include only human entities. This paper advances the argument that the non-human natural environment can be integrated into the stakeholder management concept. This argument includes the observations that the natural environment is finally becoming recognized as a vital component of the business environment, that the stakeholder concept is more than a human political/economic one, and that non-human nature currently is not adequately represented by other stakeholder groups. In addition, this paper asserts that any of several stakeholder management processes can readily include the natural environment as one or more stakeholders of organizations. Finally, the point is made that this integration would provide a more holistic, value-oriented, focused and strategic approach to stakeholder management, potentially benefitting both nature and organizations.
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References found in this work BETA
Christopher D. Stone (forthcoming). 13 Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
Karen J. Warren (1990). The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism. Environmental Ethics 12 (2):125-146.
Tom Regan & Peter Singer (eds.) (1989). Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Cambridge University Press.
Robyn Eckersley (1992). Environmentalism and Political Theory. Environmental Values:1996-1996.
Citations of this work BETA
Yves Fassin (2012). Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):83-96.
Reinhard Steurer, Markus E. Langer, Astrid Konrad & André Martinuzzi (2005). Corporations, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business–Society Relations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):263 - 281.
Esben Rahbek Pedersen (2006). Making Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Operable: How Companies Translate Stakeholder Dialogue Into Practice. Business and Society Review 111 (2):137-163.
Samantha Miles (2012). Stakeholder: Essentially Contested or Just Confused? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):285-298.
Humphry Hung (2011). Directors' Roles in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Stakeholder Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (3):385-402.
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