David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):4 – 14 (2004)
Almost 60,000 people in the United States with end stage renal disease are waiting for a kidney transplant. Because of the scarcity of organs from deceased donors live kidney donors have become a critical source of organs; in 2001, for the first time in recent decades, the number of live kidney donors exceeded the number of deceased donors. The paradigm used to justify putting live kidney donors at risk includes the low risk to the donor, the favorable risk-benefit ratio, the psychological benefits to the donor, altruism, and autonomy coupled with informed consent; because each of these arguments is flawed we need to lessen our dependence on live kidney donors and increase the number of organs retrieved from deceased donors. An "opting in" paradigm would reward people who agree to donate their kidneys after they die with allocation preference should they need a kidney while they are alive. An "opting in" program should increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation and eliminate the morally troubling problem of "organ takers" who would accept a kidney if they needed one but have made no provision to be an organ donor themselves. People who "opt in" would preferentially get an organ should they need one at the minimal cost of donating their kidneys when they have no use for them; it is a form of organ insurance a rational person should find extremely attractive. An "opting in" paradigm would simulate the reciprocal altruism observed in nature that sociobiologists believe enhances group survival. Although the allocation of organs based on factors other than need might be morally troubling, an "opting in" paradigm compares favorably with other methods of obtaining more organs and accepting the status quo of extreme organ scarcity. Although an "opting in" policy would be based on enlightened self-interest, by demonstrating the utilitarian value of mutual assistance, it would promote the attitude that self-interest sometimes requires the perception that we are all part of a common humanity.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Ellen Moskowitz (2005). Recent Developments in Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (1):168-187.
Similar books and articles
Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
Michael B. Gill & Robert M. Sade (2002). Paying for Kidneys: The Case Against Prohibition. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (1):17-45.
Govert den Hartogh (2010). Trading with the Waiting-List: The Justice of Living Donor List Exchange. Bioethics 24 (4):190-198.
Justin M. List (2004). "Opting-in" and Unnecessary Penalties for Non Kidney Donors. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):39 – 41.
Anne Hambro Alnaes (2012). Narratives: An Essential Tool for Evaluating Living Kidney Donations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):181-194.
Stephen O. Sodeke (2004). An "Opting in" Paradigm for Organ Procurement for Kidney Transplantation? A Community Based Participatory Approach is a Different View, and a Softer Approach. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):48 – 50.
David Steinberg (2004). A Response to Commentators on “An 'Opting In' Paradigm For Kidney Transplantation”. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):W35-W37.
Rosamond Rhodes, Lewis Burrows & Lewis Reisman (1992). Mt. St. Anonymous the Adolescent Living-Related Donor. HEC Forum 4 (5):314-323.
Marie Omnell-Persson, Utilization and Allocation of Organs for Transplantation - Medical and Ethical Aspects.
Alireza Bagheri (2006). Compensated Kidney Donation: An Ethical Review of the Iranian Model. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (3):269-282.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads31 ( #67,575 of 1,692,743 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #75,942 of 1,692,743 )
How can I increase my downloads?