David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
How are beliefs efficacious? One answer is: via rational intentional action. But there are other ways that beliefs are efficacious. This dissertation examines these other ways, and sketches an answer to the question of how beliefs are efficacious that takes into account how beliefs are involved in the full range of behavioral disciplines, from psychophysiology and cognition to social and economic phenomena. The account of how beliefs are efficacious I propose draws on work on active accounts of perception. I develop an account based on a proposal sketched by the cognitive scientist Ulrich Neisser. Neisser sketched an active account of perception, on which dynamic anticipatory schemata direct an organism's exploration and action, and are in turn revised as a result of exploration and action. This notion of schema has roots in nineteenth century neurophysiology and in Frederick Bartlett's subsequent work on memory. Neisser appealed to it to unite what he thought was right about information-processing accounts of perception with what he thought was right about ecological accounts of perception. The point that we must anticipate in order to perceive has been recognized by philosophers in the form of the "theory-ladenness of observation." I extend the concept of anticipatory schema to include its role in social perception and social interaction; the concept of anticipatory schema provides a more interactive account of the role of expectations in the maintenance and existence of social institutions, and can be used to enrich the account of convention David Lewis provided. I also show that the concept of rational expectations, which explains the neutrality of money in terms of the efficacy of anticipatory expectations, is compatible with the proposed account of how beliefs are efficacious. I discuss how the proposal accounts for the three main modes by which beliefs can be efficacious: via their role in causing intentional action, via their role in causing economic phenomena and the existence and maintenance of social institutions, and via their role in causing unintentional physiological responses, including anticipatory physiological responses that can enable perception, cause involuntary actions and give rise to the placebo effect
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library||
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain (2004). Nietzsche's Positivism. European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):326–368.
Similar books and articles
N. Gangopadhyay & L. Schilbach (2011). Seeing Minds: A Neurophilosophical Investigation of the Role of Perception-Action Coupling in Social Perception. Social Neuroscience.
Santiago Echeverri (2013). Is Perception a Source of Reasons? Theoria 79 (1):22-56.
John W. Schiemann, Bizarre Beliefs and Rational Choices: A Behavioral Approach to Analytic Narratives.
Todd D. Janke (2008). Making Room for Bodily Intentionality. Polish Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):51-68.
Marek McGann & Hanne De Jaegher (2009). Self–Other Contingencies: Enacting Social Perception. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):417-437.
Declan Smithies (2011). What is the Role of Consciousness in Demonstrative Thought? Journal of Philosophy 108 (1):5-34.
Raimo Tuomela (1992). Group Beliefs. Synthese 91 (3):285-318.
Matthew Haug (2011). Explaining the Placebo Effect: Aliefs, Beliefs, and Conditioning. Philosophical Psychology 24 (5):679-698.
David Hunter (2009). Beliefs and Dispositions. Journal of Philosophical Research 34:243-262.
Melissa Barry (2007). Realism, Rational Action, and the Humean Theory of Motivation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):231-242.
Paul Faulkner (1998). Conspiracies And Lyes: Scepticism And The Epistemology of Testimony. Dissertation, University College London
Bill Brewer (1998). Experience and Reason in Perception. In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 203-227.
Darren Bradley (2013). Dynamic Beliefs and the Passage of Time. In A. Capone & N. Feit (eds.), Attitudes De Se. University of Chicago
Sharyn Clough & William E. Loges (2008). Racist Value Judgments as Objectively False Beliefs: A Philosophical and Social-Psychological Analysis. Journal of Social Philosophy 39 (1):77–95.
Added to index2012-10-18
Total downloads32 ( #108,856 of 1,780,645 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #165,698 of 1,780,645 )
How can I increase my downloads?