David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Philosophical Studies 165 (3):975-988 (2013)
Some motivational cognitivists believe that there are besires—cognitive mental states (typically moral beliefs) that share the key feature of desire (typically desire’s ‘direction of ﬁt’) in virtue of which they are capable of being directly motivational. Besires have been criticized by Humeans and cognitivists alike as philosophically extravagant, incoherent, ad hoc, and incompatible with folk psychology. I provide a response to these standard objections to besires—one motivated independently of common anti-Humean intuitions about the motivational efﬁcacy of moral judgments. I proceed by examining a hypothesis about the nature of appetitive desires—that these paradigmatic motivational attitudes are a mode of perceptual experience—and argue that this hypothesis is committed to the existence of besires. However, despite its commitment to besires, this hypothesis is not extravagant, incoherent, ad hoc, or incompatible with folk psychology. In other words, the standard complaints about besires all fail. The upshot is that there is nothing bizarre about besires, and motivational cognitivism takes on no additional costs by positing them.
|Keywords||Appetitive desire Besires Direction of fit Humean theory of motivation Motivational cognitivism|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Michael Smith (1994). The Moral Problem. Blackwell.
Russ Shafer-Landau (2003). Moral Realism: A Defence. Oxford University Press.
Jonathan Dancy (1993). Moral Reasons. Blackwell.
David Hume (1739/2000). A Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Avery Archer (2015). Reconceiving Direction of Fit. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):171-180.
Similar books and articles
Steven E. Swartzer (2011). Doing Without Desiring. Dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Nick Zangwill (2008). Besires and the Motivation Debate. Theoria 74 (1):50-59.
Aristophanes Koutoungos (2008). Beliefs, Desires, And... 'Besires'. Philosophical Inquiry 30 (1-2):177-189.
Hilla Jacobson-Horowitz (2006). Motivational Cognitivism and the Argument From Direction of Fit. Philosophical Studies 127 (3):561 - 580.
Jesse Steinberg (2009). Weak Motivational Internalism, Lite: Dispositions, Moral Judgments, and What We're Motivated to Do. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (sup1):1-24.
Danielle Bromwich (2010). Clearing Conceptual Space for Cognitivist Motivational Internalism. Philosophical Studies 148 (3):343 - 367.
Mark van Roojen (2002). Should Motivational Humeans Be Humeans About Rationality? Topoi 21 (1-2):209-215.
Gunnar Björnsson & Ragnar Francén Olinder (2013). Internalists Beware—We Might All Be Amoralists! Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):1 - 14.
Sergio Tenenbaum (2006). Direction of Fit and Motivational Cognitivism. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Oxford University Press 235-64.
Neil Van Leeuwen (2009). The Motivational Role of Belief. Philosophical Papers 38 (2):219 - 246.
Hendrik Lorenz (2006). The Brute Within: Appetitive Desire in Plato and Aristotle. Oxford University Press.
Christopher G. Framarin (2008). Motivation-Encompassing Attitudes. Philosophical Explorations 11 (2):121 – 130.
Added to index2012-08-08
Total downloads64 ( #66,937 of 1,907,067 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #345,104 of 1,907,067 )
How can I increase my downloads?