David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier (2011)
Here are some of the most important discoveries in the history of medicine: blood circulation (1620s), vaccination, (1790s), anesthesia (1840s), germ theory (1860s), X- rays (1895), vitamins (early 1900s), antibiotics (1920s-1930s), insulin (1920s), and oncogenes (1970s). This list is highly varied, as it includes basic medical knowledge such has Harvey’s account of how the heart pumps blood, hypotheses about the causes of disease such as the germ theory, ideas about the treatments of diseases such as antibiotics, and medical instruments such as X-ray machines. The philosophy of medicine should be able to contribute to understanding of the nature of discoveries such as these. The great originators of the field of philosophy of science were all concerned with the nature of scientific discovery, including Francis Bacon (1960), William Whewell (1967), John Stuart Mill (1974), and Charles Peirce (1931-1958). The rise of logical positivism in the 1930s pushed discovery off the philosophical agenda, but the topic was revived through the work of philosophers such as Norwood Russell Hanson (1958), Thomas Nickles (1980), Lindley Darden (1991, 2006), and Nancy Nersessian (1984). Scientific discovery has also become an object of investigations for researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, as seen in the work of Herbert Simon, Pat Langley, and others (Langley et al., 1987; Klahr, 2000). Today, scientific September 14, 2009 discovery is an interdisciplinary topic at the intersection of the philosophy, history, and psychology of science. The aim of this chapter is to identify patterns of discovery that illuminate some of the most important developments in the history of medicine. I have used a variety of sources to identify forty great medical discoveries (Adler, 2004; Friedman and Friedland, 1998; Science Channel, 2006; Strauss and Strauss, 2006)..
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Paul Thagard (1982). Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, and the Philosophy of Discovery. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:166 - 175.
Norwood Russell Hanson (1958). Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press.
Andrew Lugg (1985). The Process of Discovery. Philosophy of Science 52 (2):207-220.
Jan M. Zytkow & Herbert A. Simon (1988). Normative Systems of Discovery and Logic of Search. Synthese 74 (1):65 - 90.
Toby J. Sommer (2001). Suppression of Scientific Research: Bahramdipity and Nulltiple Scientific Discoveries. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):77-104.
Mario Alai (2004). A.I., Scientific Discovery and Realism. Minds and Machines 14 (1):21-42.
Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine. University of Chicago Press.
Noretta Koertge (1982). Explaining Scientific Discovery. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:14 - 28.
Stephen Downes (1990). Herbert Simon's Computational Models of Scientific Discovery. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:97 - 108.
Matthew D. Lund (2010). N. R. Hanson: Observation, Discovery, and Scientific Change. Humanity Books.
Kevin Elliott (2004). Error as Means to Discovery. Philosophy of Science 71 (2):174-197.
Paul Thagard (2002). Curing Cancer? Patrick Lee's Path to the Reovirus Treatment. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (1):79 – 93.
Added to index2010-12-22
Total downloads9 ( #126,760 of 1,009,478 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #39,218 of 1,009,478 )
How can I increase my downloads?