David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741 (2000)
How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we explore fast and frugal heuristics – simple rules in the mind's adaptive toolbox for making decisions with realistic mental resources. These heuristics can enable both living organisms and artificial systems to make smart choices quickly and with a minimum of information by exploiting the way that information is structured in particular environments. In this précis, we show how simple building blocks that control information search, stop search, and make decisions can be put together to form classes of heuristics, including: ignorance-based and one-reason decision making for choice, elimination models for categorization, and satisficing heuristics for sequential search. These simple heuristics perform comparably to more complex algorithms, particularly when generalizing to new data – that is, simplicity leads to robustness. We present evidence regarding when people use simple heuristics and describe the challenges to be addressed by this research program. Key Words: adaptive toolbox; bounded rationality; decision making; elimination models; environment structure; heuristics; ignorance-based reasoning; limited information search; robustness; satisficing; simplicity.
|Keywords||adaptive toolbox bounded rationality decision making elimination models environment structure heuristics ignorance-based reasoning limited information search robustness satisficing simplicity|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Benjamin James Fraser (2014). Evolutionary Debunking Arguments and the Reliability of Moral Cognition. Philosophical Studies 168 (2):457-473.
Iris Rooij, Cory D. Wright & Todd Wareham (2012). Intractability and the Use of Heuristics in Psychological Explanations. Synthese 187 (2):471-487.
Jennifer M. Morton (2011). Toward an Ecological Theory of the Norms of Practical Deliberation. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):561-584.
Stephen Ellis (2008). The Varieties of Instrumental Rationality. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):199-220.
Christopher W. Tindale (2011). Character and Knowledge: Learning From the Speech of Experts. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):341-353.
Similar books and articles
Thom Baguley & S. Ian Robertson (2000). Where Does Fast and Frugal Cognition Stop? The Boundary Between Complex Cognition and Simple Heuristics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):742-743.
James Shanteau & Rickey P. Thomas (2000). Fast and Frugal Heuristics: What About Unfriendly Environments? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):762-763.
Annika Wallin & Peter Gärdenfors (2000). Smart People Who Make Simple Heuristics Work. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):765-765.
Michael E. Gorman (2000). Heuristics in Technoscientific Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):752-752.
Laura Martignon & Michael Schmitt (1999). Simplicity and Robustness of Fast and Frugal Heuristics. Minds and Machines 9 (4):565-593.
Rocio Garcia-Retamero & Ulrich Hoffrage (2006). How Causal Knowledge Simplifies Decision-Making. Minds and Machines 16 (3):365-380.
Nick Chater (2000). How Smart Can Simple Heuristics Be? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):745-746.
X. T. Wang (2000). From Simon 's Scissors for Rationality to Abc's Adaptive Toolbox. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):765-766.
Richard Cooper (2000). Simple Heuristics Could Make Us Smart; but Which Heuristics Do We Apply When? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):746-746.
Gerd Gigerenzer (1999). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. Oxford University Press.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads50 ( #50,862 of 1,700,241 )
Recent downloads (6 months)6 ( #105,649 of 1,700,241 )
How can I increase my downloads?