Lessons from History: Why Race and Ethnicity Have Played a Major Role in Biomedical Research

Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (3):487-496 (2006)
Before any citizen enters the role of scientist, medical practitioner, lawyer, epidemiologist, and so on, each and all grow up in a society in which the categories of human differentiation are folk categories that organize perceptions, relations, and behavior. That was true during slavery, during Reconstruction, the eugenics period, the two World Wars, and is no less true today. While every period understandably claims to transcend those categories, medicine, law, and science are profoundly and demonstrably influenced by the embedded folk notions of race and ethnicity
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DOI 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2006.00060.x
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Lynette Reid (2009). Networking Genetics, Populations, and Race. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):50-52.

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Michael Root (2001). The Problem of Race in Medicine. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (1):20-39.
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