Apologies and transformational leadership

Journal of Business Ethics 63 (2):195 - 207 (2006)
This empirical investigation showed that contrary to the popular notion that apologies signify weakness, the victims of mistakes made by leaders consistently perceived leaders who apologized as more transformational than those who did not apologize. In a field experiment (Study 1), male referees who were perceived as having apologized for mistakes made officiating hockey games were rated by male coaches (n = 93) as more transformational than when no apology was made. Studies 2 (n = 50) and 3 (n = 224) replicated this effect in two vignette studies to enhance internal and ecological validity. Contrary to expectations in Study 3, there were no apology×leader gender interactions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords apologies  moral leadership  transformational leadership
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David P. Boyd (2011). Art and Artifice in Public Apologies. Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):299-309.

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Luc Bovens (2008). Apologies. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):219-239.

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