Is knowledge justified true belief?

Synthese 184 (3):247-259 (2012)
Is knowledge justified true belief? Most philosophers believe that the answer is clearly ‘no’, as demonstrated by Gettier cases. But Gettier cases don’t obviously refute the traditional view that knowledge is justified true belief (JTB). There are ways of resisting Gettier cases, at least one of which is partly successful. Nevertheless, when properly understood, Gettier cases point to a flaw in JTB, though it takes some work to appreciate just what it is. The nature of the flaw helps us better understand the nature of knowledge and epistemic justification. I propose a crucial improvement to the traditional view, relying on an intuitive and independently plausible metaphysical distinction pertaining to the manifestation of intellectual powers, which supplements the traditional components of justification, truth and belief.
Keywords Knowledge  Gettier problem  Epistemic justification  Manifestation  Stephen Hetherington  Brian Weatherson
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DOI 10.1007/s11229-010-9773-8
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Tomas Bogardus (2013). Knowledge Under Threat. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):289-313.
Wesley Buckwalter (2013). Gettier Made ESEE. Philosophical Psychology 27 (3):368-383.

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