Implicit Acquisition of Grammars With Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Cognitive Science 36 (6):1078-1101 (2012)
A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study of language as a neurobiological system has been questioned and it has been suggested that a more relevant and partly analogous distinction is that between non-adjacent and adjacent dependencies. Online memory resources are central to the processing of non-adjacent dependencies as information has to be maintained across intervening material. One proposal is that an external memory device in the form of a limited push-down stack is used to process non-adjacent dependencies. We tested this hypothesis in an artificial grammar learning paradigm where subjects acquired non-adjacent dependencies implicitly. Generally, we found no qualitative differences between the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies and adjacent dependencies. This suggests that although the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies requires more exposure to the acquisition material, it utilizes the same mechanisms used for acquiring adjacent dependencies. We challenge the push-down stack model further by testing its processing predictions for nested and crossed multiple non-adjacent dependencies. The push-down stack model is partly supported by the results, and we suggest that stack-like properties are some among many natural properties characterizing the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms that implement the online memory resources used in language and structured sequence processing
|Keywords||Nested Non‐adjacent dependencies Implicit learning Artificial grammar learning Crossed|
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Citations of this work BETA
Hsinjen J. Hsu, J. Bruce Tomblin & Morten H. Christiansen (2014). Impaired Statistical Learning of Non-Adjacent Dependencies in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Feifei Li, Shan Jiang, Xiuyan Guo, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2013). The Nature of the Memory Buffer in Implicit Learning: Learning Chinese Tonal Symmetries. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):920-930.
Xiaoli Ling, Fengying Li, Fuqiang Qiao, Xiuyan Guo & Zoltan Dienes (2016). Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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