David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 8 (1):94-113 (1999)
The process-dissociation procedure has been used in a variety of experimental contexts to assess the contributions of conscious and unconscious processes to task performance. To evaluate whether motivation affects estimates of conscious and unconscious processes, participants were given incentives to follow inclusion and exclusion instructions in a perception task and a memory task. Relative to a control condition in which no performance incentives were given, the results for the perception task indicated that incentives increased the participants' ability to exclude previously presented information, which in turn both increased the estimate of conscious processes and decreased the estimate of unconscious processes. However, the results also indicated that incentives did not influence estimates of conscious or unconscious processes in the memory task. The findings suggest that the process-dissociation procedure is relatively immune to influences of motivation when used with a memory task, but that caution should be exercised when the process-dissociation is used with a perception task.
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Michael Snodgrass, Natasha Kalaida & E. Samuel Winer (2009). Access is Mainly a Second-Order Process: SDT Models Whether Phenomenally (First-Order) Conscious States Are Accessed by Reflectively (Second-Order) Conscious Processes☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):561-564.
Elizabeth Irvine (2009). Signal Detection Theory, the Exclusion Failure Paradigm and Weak Consciousness—Evidence for the Access/Phenomenal Distinction? Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):551-560.
Stephen M. Fleming & Raymond J. Dolan (2010). Effects of Loss Aversion on Post-Decision Wagering: Implications for Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):352-363.
Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2011). Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
Michael Snodgrass & Scott A. Lepisto (2007). Access for What? Reflective Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):525-526.
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