David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):390 – 410 (2005)
Reasoning requires making inferences based on information gleaned from a set of relations. The relational complexity of a problem increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make a correct inference. Previous work (Viskontas, Morrison, Holyoak, Hummel, & Knowlton, 2004) has shown that older adults have difficulty integrating multiple relations during analogical reasoning, especially when required to inhibit irrelevant information. We report two experiments that examined the ability to integrate multiple relations in younger, middle-aged, and older adults performing two other reasoning tasks. These tasks systematically varied relational complexity, and required either inductive reasoning (a version of the Raven's Matrices Task) or transitive inference. Our results show that as people age they have increasing difficulty in solving problems that require them to integrate multiple relations. This difficulty may stem from a decrease in working memory capacity.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Juan Pascual-Leone (1998). To Appraise Developmental Difficulty or Mental Demand, Relational Complexity is Not Enough. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):843-844.
Graeme S. Halford & Glenda Andrews (2004). The Development of Deductive Reasoning: How Important is Complexity? Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):123 – 145.
Josh McGuire (2009). Ethical Considerations When Working with Older Adults in Psychology. Ethics and Behavior 19 (2):112 – 128.
Indre V. Viskontas & Keith J. Holyoak (2006). Mechanisms of Fluid Cognition: Relational Integration and Inhibition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):141-142.
Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst (2002). Mental Model Theory Versus the Inference Rule Approach in Relational Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):193 – 203.
Lyn D. English (1998). Children's Reasoning in Solving Relational Problems of Deduction. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):249 – 281.
Jean M. Tohill & Keith J. Holyoak (2000). The Impact of Anxiety on Analogical Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):27 – 40.
Daniel C. Krawczyk, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel (2004). Structural Constraints and Object Similarity in Analogical Mapping and Inference. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):85 – 104.
James A. Waltz, Barbara J. Knowlton & Keith J. Holyoak (1998). Relational Complexity, the Central Executive, and Prefrontal Cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):846-847.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads8 ( #381,372 of 1,793,059 )
Recent downloads (6 months)4 ( #206,240 of 1,793,059 )
How can I increase my downloads?