An evolutionary theory of pain must consider sex differences

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):474-475 (2002)
According to Williams, human facially expressed pain, and its perception by conspecifics, is generated by evolved mechanisms. We argue that a key variable – sex (male, female) – needs to be considered for a complete theory of pain expression and perception. To illustrate, we cite findings on sex differences in pain and pain perception, and in crying and crying responsiveness.
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DOI 10.1017/S0140525X02420080
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