David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):51-64 (2005)
Research in the neurosciences continues to provide evidence that sleep plays a role in the processes of learning and memory. There is less of a consensus, however, regarding the precise stages of memory development during which sleep is considered a requirement, simply favorable, or not important. This article begins with an overview of recent studies regarding sleep and learning, predominantly in the procedural memory domain, and is measured against our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern memory formation. Based on these considerations, I offer a new neurocognitive framework of procedural learning, consisting first of acquisition, followed by two specific stages of consolidation, one involving a process of stabilization, the other involving enhancement, whereby delayed learning occurs. Psychophysiological evidence indicates that initial acquisition does not rely fundamentally on sleep. This also appears to be true for the stabilization phase of consolidation, with durable representations, resistant to interference, clearly developing in a successful manner during time awake (or just time, per se). In contrast, the consolidation stage, resulting in additional/enhanced learning in the absence of further rehearsal, does appear to rely on the process of sleep, with evidence for specific sleep-stage dependencies across the procedural domain. Evaluations at a molecular, cellular, and systems level currently offer several sleep specific candidates that could play a role in sleep-dependent learning. These include the upregulation of select plasticity-associated genes, increased protein synthesis, changes in neurotransmitter concentration, and specific electrical events in neuronal networks that modulate synaptic potentiation. Key Words: consolidation; enhancement; learning; memory; plasticity; sleep; stabilization.
|Keywords||consolidation enhancement learning memory plasticity sleep stabilization|
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Josie E. Malinowski & Caroline L. Horton (2015). Metaphor and Hyperassociativity: The Imagination Mechanisms Behind Emotion Assimilation in Sleep and Dreaming. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
Lisa Marshall & Jan Born (2007). The Contribution of Sleep to Hippocampus-Dependent Memory Consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (10):442-450.
Mark Blagrove, Josie Henley-Einion, Amanda Barnett, Darren Edwards & C. Heidi Seage (2011). A Replication of the 5–7day Dream-Lag Effect with Comparison of Dreams to Future Events as Control for Baseline Matching. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):384-391.
Jocelyn Breton & Edwin M. Robertson (2014). Flipping the Switch: Mechanisms That Regulate Memory Consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (12):629-634.
J. Poolton, R. MasteRs & J. Maxwell (2007). Passing Thoughts on the Evolutionary Stability of Implicit Motor Behaviour: Performance Retention Under Physiological Fatigue. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):456-468.
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