David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Philosophical Research 27:239-265 (2002)
Peirce illustrated the type-token distinction by means of the definite article: there is only one word type “the,” but there are likely to be about twenty tokens of it on this page. Not all tokens are inscriptions; some are sounds, whispered or shouted, and some are smoke signals. The type “the” is neither written ink nor spoken sound; it is an abstract object. Or consider the Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos horribilis. At one time its U.S. range was most of the area west of the Missouri River and it numbered 10,000 in California alone. Today it numbers less than 1,000. Of course no particular bear numbers 1,000 and no particular bear ever had a range comprising most of the area west of the Missouri. It is a type of bear, a species of bear, that has both properties.We are all familiar with this way of talking about types of things. But—aside from being universals—what are types? What makes a token of one type rather than another? How do we know it is a token of that type? Do some types fail to have tokens? What, if anything, do all and only tokens of a particular type have in common other than being tokens of that type? The first half of the paper answers the last question (“Nothing beyond being a token of the type”). The second half contains sketches of answers to the other questions
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
No categories specified
(categorize this paper)
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Wayne A. Davis (2008). Thought Structure, Belief Content, and Possession Conditions. Acta Analytica 23 (3):207-231.
Similar books and articles
Linda Wetzel, Types and Tokens. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Aleksandar Kellenberg (2010). The Antinomy of the Variable. Dialectica 64 (2):225-236.
Risto Hilpinen (2013). Types and Tokens: On the Identity and Meaning of Names and Other Words. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (3):259-284.
Ruth G. Millikan (1993). On Mentalese Orthography. In B. Dahlbom (ed.), Dennett and His Critics. Blackwell
Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska (2007). Meaning and Interpretation. I. Studia Logica 85 (1):105 - 132.
Bence Nanay (2010). A Modal Theory of Function. Journal of Philosophy 107 (8):412-431.
John Dilworth (2003). A Counter-Example to Theatrical Type Theories. Philosophia 31 (1-2):165-170.
John Dilworth (2003). Ariadne at the Movies. Contemporary Aesthetics 1 (1).
Joseph F. Hanna (2004). Contra Ladyman: What Really is Right with Constructive Empiricism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):767-777.
Daniel Murray Hausman (2005). Causal Relata: Tokens, Types, or Variables? [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 63 (1):33 - 54.
James Wilson (2010). Ontology and the Regulation of Intellectual Property. The Monist 93 (3):450-463.
M. García-Carpintero (1998). Indexicals as Token-Reflexives. Mind 107 (427):529 - 563.
Carsten Griesel, The Type-Token Distinction and the Mind and Brain Sciences. Reduction and the Special Sciences (Tilburg, April 10-12, 2008).
Added to index2011-12-02
Total downloads45 ( #96,261 of 1,911,834 )
Recent downloads (6 months)12 ( #50,323 of 1,911,834 )
How can I increase my downloads?