David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):475-480 (2002)
The experience of pain appears to be associated, from early infancy and across pain stimuli, with a consistent facial expression in humans. A social function is proposed for this: the communication of pain and the need for help to observers, to whom information about danger is of value, and who may provide help within a kin or cooperative relationship. Some commentators have asserted that the evidence is insufficient to account for the consistency of the face, as judged by technical means or in the perceptions of observers, or that facial expression is epiphenomenal to a gross behavioural defensive response to pain. The major criticism is that it is unnecessary to invoke evolutionary mechanisms beyond the emergence of an unconditioned facial response to pain in neonates, subsequently shaped and maintained by instrumental and social reinforcement throughout life. These criticisms are addressed, acknowledging the need for further data to address some, and elaborating the areas in which evolutionary and operant mechanisms would predict different behavioural interactions, rather than acting synergistically. Several supportive commentaries propose extending evolutionarily-based hypotheses to sex differences, the complexities of others' responses within the social relationship, and the role of empathy. A number of commentators provided valuable suggestions for experimental paradigms or methodological issues. Overall, addressing these issues indicates the need for further conceptual development and for collection of data specifically in relation to these hypotheses.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Karen L. Schmidt (2002). The Evolutionarily Novel Context of Clinical Caregiving and Facial Displays of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):471-472.
Amanda C. C. Williamdes (2002). Facial Expression of Pain: An Evolutionary Account. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):439-455.
Edmund Keogh & Anita Holdcroft (2002). Sex Differences in Pain: Evolutionary Links to Facial Pain Expression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):465-465.
Christiane Hermann & Herta Flor (2002). Facial Expression of Pain – More Than a Fuzzy Expression of Distress? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):462-463.
Nico H. Frijda (2002). What is Pain Facial Expression For? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):460-460.
Maja Pantic & Leon J. M. Rothkrantz (2002). Machine Understanding of Facial Expression of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):469-470.
Christine R. Harris & Nancy Alvarado (2002). Pain Facial Expression: Individual Variability Undermines the Specific Adaptationist Account. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):461-462.
Temre N. Davies & Donald D. Hoffman (2002). Psychophysical Studies of Expressions of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):458-459.
Mitchell S. Green (2002). Intention and Authenticity in the Facial Expression of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):460-461.
C. Richard Chapman & Yoshio Nakamura (2002). What Role Does Intersubjectivity Play in the Facial Expression of Pain? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):455-456.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads6 ( #206,773 of 1,102,762 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #120,475 of 1,102,762 )
How can I increase my downloads?