Language as a community of interacting belief systems: A case study involving conduct toward self and others [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):77-97 (1995)
Words such as selfish and altruistic that describe conduct toward self and others are notoriously ambiguous in everyday language. I argue that the ambiguity is caused, in part, by the coexistence of multiple belief systems that use the same words in different ways. Each belief system is a relatively coherent linguistic entity that provides a guide for human behavior. It is therefore a functional entity with design features that dictate specific word meaning. Since different belief systems guide human behavior in different directions, specific word meanings cannot be maintained across belief systems. Other sources of linguistic ambiguity include i) functional ambiguity that increases the effectiveness of a belief system, ii) ambiguity between belief systems that are functionally identical but historically distinct, and iii) active interference between belief systems. I illustrate these points with a natural history study of the word selfish and related words in everyday language. In general, language and the thought that it represents should be studied in the same way that ecologists study multi-species communities.
|Keywords||Altruism belief systems language selfish sociolinguistics species of thought|
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References found in this work BETA
Richard E. Nisbett & Lee Ross (1980). Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment. Prentice-Hall.
George Lakoff (1987). Women, Fire and Dangerous Thing: What Catergories Reveal About the Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Jerome Barkow, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby (eds.) (1992). The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Oxford University Press.
David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585.
Citations of this work BETA
Heather Dyke (2011). The Evolutionary Origins of Tensed Language and Belief. Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):401-418.
David Sloan Wilson, Steven C. Hayes, Anthony Biglan & Dennis D. Embry (2014). Evolving the Future: Toward a Science of Intentional Change. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):395-416.
David Sloan Wilson & Rick O'Gorman (2003). Emotions and Actions Associated with Norm-Breaking Events. Human Nature 14 (3):277-304.
David Sloan Wilson & Steven Jay Lynn (2009). Adaptive Misbeliefs Are Pervasive, but the Case for Positive Illusions is Weak. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):539-540.
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