David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68 (1992)
I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring the precise nature of both psychological and evolutionary definitions has obscured many important issues, including the biological roots of psychological altruism.
|Keywords||Altruism evolution group selection selfishness|
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References found in this work BETA
Michael Ruse (1986/1998). Taking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy. Prometheus Books.
Herbert A. Simon (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford University Press.
Elliott Sober (1993). Evolutionary Altruism, Psychological Egoism, and Morality: Disentangling the Phenotypes. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 199--216.
Elliott Sober (1988). What is Evolutionary Altruism? In B. Linsky & M. Mathen (eds.), New Essays on Philosophy and Biology (Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supp. Vol. 14). University of Calgary Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Margaret Gilbert (1994). Me, You, and Us: Distinguishing “Egoism,” “Altruism,” and “Groupism”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):621.
John Alroy & Alexander Levine (1994). Driving Both Ways: Wilson & Sober's Conflicting Criteria for the Identification of Groups as Vehicles of Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):608.
James F. Crow (1994). In Praise of Replicators. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):616.
Todd A. Grantham (1994). Putting the Cart Back Behind the Horse: Group Selection Does Not Require That Groups Be “Organisms”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):622.
David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Group Selection: The Theory Replaces the Bogey Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):639.
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