David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68 (1992)
I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring the precise nature of both psychological and evolutionary definitions has obscured many important issues, including the biological roots of psychological altruism.
|Keywords||Altruism evolution group selection selfishness|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Michael Ruse (1986/1998). Taking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy. Prometheus Books.
Herbert A. Simon (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford University Press.
Elliott Sober (1993). Evolutionary Altruism, Psychological Egoism, and Morality: Disentangling the Phenotypes. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 199--216.
Elliott Sober (1988). What is Evolutionary Altruism? In B. Linsky & M. Mathen (eds.), New Essays on Philosophy and Biology (Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supp. Vol. 14). University of Calgary Press.
Citations of this work BETA
John Alroy & Alexander Levine (1994). Driving Both Ways: Wilson & Sober's Conflicting Criteria for the Identification of Groups as Vehicles of Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):608.
James F. Crow (1994). In Praise of Replicators. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):616.
Todd A. Grantham (1994). Putting the Cart Back Behind the Horse: Group Selection Does Not Require That Groups Be “Organisms”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):622.
David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober (1994). Group Selection: The Theory Replaces the Bogey Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):639.
C. Loring Brace (1994). The Consequences of Group Selection in a Domain Without Genetic Input: Culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):611.
Similar books and articles
Jack Wilson (2002). The Accidental Altruist. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):71-91.
Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson (2000). Morality and ‘Unto Others': Response to Commentary Discussion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):257-268.
Dale Jamieson (2002). Sober and Wilson on Psychological Altruism. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (3):702–710.
Yakov Shapiro & Glen O. Gabbard (1994). A Reconsideration of Altruism From an Evolutionary and Psychodynamic Perspective. Ethics and Behavior 4 (1):23 – 42.
Armin W. Schulz (2011). Sober & Wilson's Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
James A. van Slyke (2010). Cognitive and Evolutionary Factors in the Emergence of Human Altruism. Zygon 45 (4):841-859.
Christine Clavien (2012). Altruistic Emotional Motivation: An Argument in Favour of Psychological Altruism. In Katie Plaisance & Thomas Reydon (eds.), Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer Press.
Alejandro Rosas (2002). Psychological and Evolutionary Evidence for Altruism. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):93-107.
David Sloan Wilson & Ralph R. Miller (2002). Altruism, Evolutionary Psychology, and Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):281-282.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads21 ( #80,857 of 1,100,779 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #289,565 of 1,100,779 )
How can I increase my downloads?