David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68 (1992)
I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring the precise nature of both psychological and evolutionary definitions has obscured many important issues, including the biological roots of psychological altruism.
|Keywords||Altruism evolution group selection selfishness|
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References found in this work BETA
Michael Ruse (1986/1998). Taking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy. Prometheus Books.
Herbert A. Simon (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford University Press.
Elliott Sober (1993). Evolutionary Altruism, Psychological Egoism, and Morality: Disentangling the Phenotypes. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 199--216.
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Citations of this work BETA
Margaret Gilbert (1994). Me, You, and Us: Distinguishing “Egoism,” “Altruism,” and “Groupism”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):621.
John Dupré (1994). Some Philosophical Implications of the Rehabilitation of Group Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):619.
John Alroy & Alexander Levine (1994). Driving Both Ways: Wilson & Sober's Conflicting Criteria for the Identification of Groups as Vehicles of Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):608.
James F. Crow (1994). In Praise of Replicators. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):616.
Todd A. Grantham (1994). Putting the Cart Back Behind the Horse: Group Selection Does Not Require That Groups Be “Organisms”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):622.
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