David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Philosophical Review 118 (3):351-374 (2009)
Plato presents a hierarchy of five cities, each representing a structural arrangement of the soul. The timocratic soul, characterized by its governance by spirit and its consequent desire for esteem and aversion to shame, is ranked as the second-best kind of soul, though this should strike us as surprising since the timocratic figure would seem to be duplicitous, intellectually passive, and at the mercy of the fortuitous opinions of others. This timocrat's position thus raises problems concerning the intrinsic value of the spirited part of the soul, problems that are best solved by comparing the auxiliary to the timocrat, both of whom represent different forms of second-best morality. A lengthy discussion of the early education's effect on the spirited part shows how the auxiliary represents the best kind of moral agent that the second-best nature (silver-souled individuals) can develop into. This is because the early education ensures that the auxiliary and the philosopher share the same basic structure of soul, with reason being in control of each, though the auxiliary's natural deficiencies create some limitations in terms of his or her moral self-sufficiency. The timocrat by contrast represents the second-best kind of moral agent that the best nature (gold-souled individuals) can develop into. The timocrat is morally inferior to the auxiliary and seems to embody Homeric shame-culture. Plato is critical of this approach to morality, but the timocrat justifiably occupies the second position in the hierarchy on account of his or her concern for the opinions of others. CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us Digg Reddit Technorati What's this?
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Barbara Honey Brooks, An Examination of the Influence of Socrates and 3 Ancient Mystery Schools on Plato, His Future Theories of the Soul and Spirit, and System of Soul-Centred Education as Portrayed in His Republic with Educational Implications for Today.
Nicholas D. Smith (1999). Plato's Analogy of Soul and State. Journal of Ethics 3 (1):31-49.
Hsei-Yung Hsu, Just State and Just Man : A Dialogue Between Plato and Confucius. PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.
R. H. Myers (1999). The Inescapability of Moral Reasons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (2):281-307.
Andrew S. Mason (2010). Plato. Acumen Pub. Ltd..
David Carr (2010). On the Moral Value of Physical Activity: Body and Soul in Plato's Account of Virtue. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (1):3 – 15.
Michael Davis (2011). The Soul of the Greeks: An Inquiry. University of Chicago Press.
Rachel Barney, Tad Brennan & Charles Brittain (eds.) (2012). Plato and the Divided Self. Cambridge University Press.
Dominic Scott (2000). Plato's Critique of the Democratic Character. Phronesis 45 (1):19-37.
Dominic Scott (2000). Plato's Critique of the Democratic Character. Phronesis 45 (1):19 - 37.
Added to index2009-07-19
Total downloads51 ( #34,692 of 1,102,060 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #306,621 of 1,102,060 )
How can I increase my downloads?