David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2):174-181 (2010)
In various debates about science, appeal is made to the freedom of scientific research. A rationale in favor of this freedom is rarely offered. In this paper, two major arguments are reconstructed that promise to lend support to a principle of scientific freedom. According to the epistemological argument, freedom of research is required in order to organize the collective cognitive effort we call science efficiently. According to the political argument, scientific knowledge needs to be generated in ways that are independent of the major political powers because of the important role it plays for the citizens and their capacity to form well-informed political preferences. Both arguments are examined critically in order to identify their strengths and limitations. I argue that the scientific freedom established by both rests on a number of critical preconditions, and that the arguments’ force must be weighed against competing societal interests and values in each case of their application. Appeal to a principle of scientific freedom should therefore never mark the end, but rather the beginning of a public debate about the ends and means of science.
|Keywords||freedom of research science policy academic freedom|
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References found in this work BETA
Lars Bergström (1994). Notes on the Value of Science. In D. Prawitz, B. Skyrms & D. Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science IX. Elsevier Science B. V.
Mark B. Brown & David H. Guston (2009). Science, Democracy, and the Right to Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):351-366.
Joshua Cohen (2003). Delibration and Democratic Legitimacy. In Derek Matravers & Jonathan E. Pike (eds.), Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology. Routledge, in Association with the Open University
Heather Douglas (2005). Inserting the Public Into Science. In Sabine Maasen & Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making. Springer 153--169.
Citations of this work BETA
Hugh Lacey & Pablo R. Mariconda (2012). The Eagle and the Starlings: Galileo's Argument for the Autonomy of Science—How Pertinent is It Today? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):122-131.
Anke Bueter (2015). The Irreducibility of Value-Freedom to Theory Assessment. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:18-26.
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