David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Bioethics 17 (2):169–187 (2003)
It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships. (edited).
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Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta (2012). Reproductive Biocrossings: Indian Egg Donors and Surrogates in the Globalized Fertility Market. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):25-51.
Vida Panitch (2013). Surrogate Tourism and Reproductive Rights. Hypatia 28 (2):274-289.
Louise Anna Helena Ramskold & Marcus Paul Posner (2013). Commercial Surrogacy: How Provisions of Monetary Remuneration and Powers of International Law Can Prevent Exploitation of Gestational Surrogates. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):397-402.
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