Aggregate, composed, and evolved systems: Reductionistic heuristics as means to more holistic theories [Book Review]

Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):667-702 (2006)
Abstract
Richard Levins’ distinction between aggregate, composed and evolved systems acquires new significance as we recognize the importance of mechanistic explanation. Criteria for aggregativity provide limiting cases for absence of organization, so through their failure, can provide rich detectors for organizational properties. I explore the use of failures of aggregativity for the analysis of mechanistic systems in diverse contexts. Aggregativity appears theoretically desireable, but we are easily fooled. It may be exaggerated through approximation, conditions of derivation, and extrapolating from some conditions of decomposition illegtimately to others. Evolved systems particularly may require analyses under alternative complementary decompositions. Exploring these conditions helps us to better understand the strengths and limits of reductionistic methods.
Keywords Aggregativity  Heuristics  Functional localization fallacies  Reductionism  Mechanism  Complexity  Intersubstitutability  Nothing-but-ism  Decomposability  Invariance  Richard Levins
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Stephen Pratten (2013). Critical Realism and the Process Account of Emergence. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (3):251-279.
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