David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):445-462 (2011)
Although being widely considered as only a Western tradition, individualism is not absent in traditional Chinese philosophy and culture. In some of the classic Chinese philosophic works such as Zhuangzi, we can clearly identify some elements which can be appropriately attributed to “individualism”, such as the awareness of individual “self” as an independent and unique existence, advocating individual freedom and liberty, emphasizing on the value and dignity of individual life, favoring individuals’ autonomy and privacy, pursuing unconstrained development in personality and spirituality. However, due to its particular pre-Qin social cultural background and its unique Daoist philosophic origin, this kind of individualism in Zhuangzi has its own unique characteristics, which has made it distinguishable from the variety of other individualist thoughts emerged in different times and places in the West. Zhuangzi has a dynamic and open view on individual or “self”, he does not consider individuals as fixed and interchangeable “atoms” but as dynamic, changing and unique beings, he set the unlimited and indefinable Dao as the only and ultimate source for individuals to conform to, thus to release individual mind into an realm of infinite openness and freedom. Zhuangzian individualism is “inward” rather than “outward”, which means while concentrating on individuals’ freedom of spirit and innate nature, it cares less about individuals’ outside material interests and rights in social reality, and does not encourage competition and rivalry among individuals. The special type of individualism in Zhuangzi has a profound influence on Chinese culture, providing a spiritual space for the development of individuality and personality in ancient China. It also provides an alternative understanding of individual as an existence.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Xu Keqian 徐克謙 (2011). A Different Type of Individualism in Zhuangzi. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):445-462.
Eric Mack (1999). In Defense of Individualism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (2):87-115.
Nakia S. Pope, Recovery of the Lost Individual: A Deweyan Examination of Individuality and Community.
Robert A. Wilson (2004). Recent Work on Individualism in the Social, Behavioural, and Biological Sciences. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):397-423.
Brian Epstein (2009). Ontological Individualism Reconsidered. Synthese 166 (1):187-213.
Zhaohui Bao (2010). The Advantages, Shortcomings, and Existential Issues of Zhuangzi's Use of Images. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):196-211.
Eske Møllgaard (2005). Zhuangzi's Notion of Transcendental Life. Asian Philosophy 15 (1):1 – 18.
Eske Møllgaard (2005). Zhuangzi's Notion of Transcendental Life. Asian Philosophy 15 (1):1-18.
Carl J. Dull (2012). Zhuangzi and Thoreau: Wandering, Nature, and Freedom. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (2):222-239.
Guoping Zhao (2012). The Self and Human Freedom in Foucault and Zhuangzi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (1):139-156.
James H. Fetzer (1986). Methodological Individualism: Singular Causal Systems and Their Population Manifestations. Synthese 68 (1):99 - 128.
Hans Bernhard Schmid (2008). Plural Action. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (1):25-54.
Mario Bunge (2000). Ten Modes of Individualism--None of Which Works--And Their Alternatives. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (3):384-406.
Andrew J. Cohen (2000). Liberalism, Communitarianism, and Asocialism. Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (2/3):249-261.
Added to index2012-02-21
Total downloads348 ( #3,109 of 1,780,586 )
Recent downloads (6 months)44 ( #17,032 of 1,780,586 )
How can I increase my downloads?